The Novikov equation is an integrable analogue of the CamassaHolm equation with a cubic (rather than quadratic) nonlinear term. Both these equations support a special family of weak solutions called multipeakon solutions. In this paper, an approach involving Pfaffians is applied to study multipeakons of the Novikov equation. First, we show that the Novikov peakon ODEs describe an isospectral flow on the manifold cut out by certain Pfaffian identities. Then, a link between the Novikov peakons and the finite Toda lattice of BKP type (B-Toda lattice) is established based on the use of Pfaffians. Finally, certain generalizations of the Novikov equation and the finite B-Toda lattice are proposed together with special solutions. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the peakon problem is interpreted in terms of Pfaffians.
Many discrete integrable systems exhibit the Laurent phenomenon. In this paper, we investigate three integrable systems: the Somos-4 recurrence, the Somos-5 recurrence, and a system related to so-called A_1 A_1-system, whose general solutions are derived in terms of Hankel determinant. As a result, we directly confirm that they satisfy the Laurent property. Additionally, it is shown that the Somos-5 recurrence can be viewed as a specified Backlund transformation of the Somos-4 recurrence. Related topics about Somos polynomials are also studied.
In this Letter we propose that for Lax integrable nonlinear partial differential equations the natural concept of weak solutions is implied by the compatibility condition for the respective distributional Lax pairs. We illustrate our proposal by comparing two concepts of weak solutions of the modified Camassa-Holm equation pointing out that in the <i>peakon</i> sector (a family of non-smooth solitons) only one of them, namely the one obtained from the distributional compatibility condition, supports the time invariance of the Sobolev <i>H</i><sup>1</sup> norm.
Motivated by the paper of Beals, Sattinger and Szmigielski (2000) , we propose an extension of the CamassaHolm equation, which also admits the multipeakon solutions. The novel aspect is that our approach is mainly based on classic determinant technique. Furthermore, the proposed equation is shown to possess a nonisospectral Lax pair.
By introducing some special bi-orthogonal polynomials, we derive the so-called discrete hungry quotient-difference (dhQD) algorithm and a system related to the QD-type discrete hungry LotkaVolterra (QD-type dhLV) system, together with their Lax pairs. These two known equations can be regarded as extensions of the QD algorithm. When this idea is applied to a higher analogue of the discrete-time Toda (HADT) equation and the quotientquotient-difference (QQD) scheme proposed by Spicer, Nijhoff and van der Kamp, two extended systems are constructed. We call these systems the hungry forms of the higher analogue discrete-time Toda (hHADT) equation and the quotient-quotient-difference (hQQD) scheme, respectively. In addition, the corresponding Lax pairs are provided.