This investigation studies nonemptiness problems of plane edge coloring with three colors. In the edge coloring (or Wang tiles) of a plane, unit squares with colored edges that have one of p colors are arranged side by side such that the touching edges of the adjacent tiles have the same colors. Given a basic set B of Wang tiles, the nonemptiness problem is to determine whether
or not Σ(B) 6= ∅, where Σ(B) is the set of all global patterns on Z2 that can be constructed from the Wang tiles in B. Wang’s conjecture is that for any B of Wang tiles, Σ(B) 6= ∅ if and only if P(B) 6= ∅, where P(B) is the set of all periodic patterns on Z2 that can be generated by the tiles in B.
When p ≥ 5, Wang’s conjecture is known to be wrong. When p = 2, theconjecture is true. This study proves that when p = 3, the conjecture is also true. If P(B) 6= ∅, then B has a subset B′ of minimal cycle generators such that P(B′) 6= ∅ and P(B′′) = ∅ for B′′ $ B′. This study demonstrates that the set C(3) of all minimal cycle generators contains 787, 605 members that
can be classified into 2, 906 equivalence classes. N(3) is the set of all maximal non-cycle generators : if B ∈ N(3), then P(B) = ∅ and P(B ˜) 6= ∅ for B ˜ % B. Wang’s conjecture is shown to be true by proving that B ∈ N(3) implies
Σ(B) = ∅.
This work is concerned with zeta functions of two-dimensional shifts of finite type. A two-dimensional zeta function ζ0(s) which generalizes the Artin-Mazur zeta function was given by Lind for Z2-action φ. The n-th order zeta function ζn of φ on Zn×∞, n ≥ 1, is studied first. The trace operator Tn which is the transition matrix for x-periodic patterns of period n with height 2 is rotationally symmetric. The rotational symmetry of Tn induces the reduced trace operator τn and ζn = (det (I − snτn))−1. The zeta function
ζ =∞ Qn=1 (det (I − snτn))−1 in the x-direction is now a reciprocal of an infinite product of polynomials. The zeta function can be presented in the y-direction and in the coordinates of any unimodular transformation in GL2(Z). Therefore, there exists a family of zeta functions that are meromorphic extensions of the same analytic function ζ0(s). The Taylor series at the origin for these
zeta functions are equal with integer coefficients, yielding a family of identities which are of interest in number theory. The method applies to thermodynamic zeta functions for the Ising model with finite range interactions.
We study the two main types of trajectories of the ABC ow in the near-integrable regime: spiral orbits and edge orbits. The former are helical orbits which are perturbations of similar orbits that exist in the integrable regime, while the latter exist only in the non-integrable regime. We prove existence of ballistic (i.e., linearly growing) spiral orbits by using the contraction mapping principle in the Hamiltonian formulation, and we also nd and analyze ballistic edge orbits. We discuss the relationship of existence of these orbits with questions concerning front propagation in the presence of ows, in particular, the question of linear (i.e., maximal possible) front speed enhancement rate for ABC ows.
In this paper, we prove that the ODE system,
whose right-hand side is the Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) flow with parameters A = B = C = 1, has periodic orbits on $(2 \pi T)^3$ with rotation vectors parallel to (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), and (0, 0, 1). An application of this result is that the well-known G-equation model for turbulent combustion with this ABC flow on $R^3$ has a linear (i.e., maximal possible) flame speed enhancement rate as the amplitude of the flow grows.