The classical Minkowski formula is extended to spacelike codimension-two submanifolds in spacetimes which admit "hidden symmetry" from conformal Killing-Yano two-forms. As an application, we obtain an Alexandrov type theorem for spacelike codimension-two submanifolds in a static spherically symmetric spacetime: a codimension-two submanifold with constant normalized null expansion (null mean curvature) must lie in a shear-free (umbilical) null hypersurface. These results are generalized for higher order curvature invariants. In particular, the notion of mixed higher order mean curvature is introduced to highlight the special null geometry of the submanifold. Finally, Alexandrov type theorems are established for spacelike submanifolds with constant mixed higher order mean curvature, which are generalizations of hypersurfaces of constant Weingarten curvature in the Euclidean space.
In the first half of this article, we survey the new quasi-local and total angular momentum and center of mass defined in  and summarize the important properties of these definitions. To compute these conserved quantities involves solving a nonlinear PDE
system (the optimal isometric embedding equation), which is rather difficult in general. We found a large family of initial data sets on which such a calculation can be carried out effectively. These are initial data sets of harmonic asymptotics, first proposed by
Corvino and Schoen to solve the full vacuum constraint equation. In the second half of this article, the new total angular momentum and center of mass for these initial data sets are computed explicitly.
In this article, we survey recent developments in defining the quasi-local mass in general relativity. We discuss various approaches and the properties and applications of the different definitions. Among the expected properties, we focus on the rigidity property: for a surface in the Minkowski spacetime, one expects that the mass should vanish. We describe the Wang-Yau quasi-local mass whose definition is motivated by this rigidity property and by the Hamilton-Jacobi analysis of the Einstein-Hilbert action. In addition, we survey recent results on the minimizing property the Wang-Yau quasi-local mass.
Tao Yang · Ming C Lin · Ralph R Martin · Jian Chang · Shimin Hu. Versatile interactions at interfaces for SPH-based simulations. In ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation.Page 57-66.2016.
This article presents a novel and flexible bubble modelling technique for multi-fluid simulations using a volume fraction representation. By combining the volume fraction data obtained from a primary multi-fluid simulation with simple and efficient secondary bubble simulation, a range of real-world bubble phenomena are captured with a high degree of physical realism, including large bubble deformation, sub-cell bubble motion, bubble stacking over the liquid surface, bubble volume change, dissolving of bubbles, etc. Without any change in the primary multi-fluid simulator, our bubble modelling approach is applicable to any multi-fluid simulator based on the volume fraction representation.
The nonlinear and non-stationary nature of Navier-Stokes equations produces fluid flows that can be noticeably different in appearance with subtle changes. In this paper we introduce a method that can analyze the intrinsic multiscale features of flow fields from a decomposition point of view, by using the Hilbert-Huang transform method on 3D fluid simulation. We show how this method can provide insights to flow styles and help modulate the fluid simulation with its internal physical information. We provide easy-toimplement algorithms that can be integrated with standard grid-based fluid simulation methods, and demonstrate how this approach can modulate the flow field and guide the simulation with different flow styles. The modulation is straightforward and relates directly to the flow¡¯s visual effect, with moderate computational overhead.