In event studies of capital market efficiency, an earnings surprise has historically been measured by the consensus error, defined as earnings minus the consensus or average of professional forecasts. The rationale is that the consensus is an accurate measure of the markets expectation of earnings. But since forecasts can be biased due to conflicts of interest and some investors can see through these conflicts, this rationale is flawed and the consensus error a biased measure of an earnings surprise. We show that the fraction of forecasts that miss on the same side (FOM), by ignoring the size of the misses, is less sensitive to such bias and a better measure of an earnings surprise. As a result, FOM out-performs the consensus error and its related robust statistics in explaining stock price movements around and subsequent to the announcement date.
Motivated by the problem of colocalization analysis in fluorescence microscopic imaging, we study in this paper structured detection of correlated regions between two random processes observed on a common domain. We argue that although intuitive, direct use of the maximum log-likelihood statistic suffers from potential bias and substantially reduced power, and introduce a simple size-based normalization to overcome this problem. We show that scanning with the proposed size-corrected likelihood ratio statistics leads to optimal correlation detection over a large collection of structured correlation detection problems.
We propose a bootstrap-based robust high-confidence level upper bound (Robust H-CLUB) for assessing the risks of large portfolios. The proposed approach exploits rank-based and quantile-based estimators, and can be viewed as a robust extension of the H-CLUB procedure (Fan etal., 2015). Such an extension allows us to handle possibly misspecified models and heavy-tailed data, which are stylized features in financial returns. Under mixing conditions, we analyze the proposed approach and demonstrate its advantage over H-CLUB. We further provide thorough numerical results to back up the developed theory, and also apply the proposed method to analyze a stock market dataset.
Several novel large volatility matrix estimation methods have been developed based on the high-frequency financial data. They often employ the approximate factor model that leads to a low-rank plus sparse structure for the integrated volatility matrix and facilitates estimation of large volatility matrices. However, for predicting future volatility matrices, these nonparametric estimators do not have a dynamic structure to implement. In this paper, we introduce a novel It diffusion process based on the approximate factor models and call it a factor GARCH-It model. We then investigate its properties and propose a quasi-maximum likelihood estimation method for the parameter of the factor GARCH-It model. We also apply it to estimating conditional expected large volatility matrices and establish their asymptotic properties. Simulation studies are conducted to validate the finite sample performance of the proposed
Two measures of sensitivity to initial conditions in nonlinear time series are proposed. The notions give some insight into the relationship between the Fisher information in statistical estimation and initial-value sensitivity in dynamical systems. By using the locally polynomial regression, we develop nonparametric estimates for a conditional density function, its square root and its partial derivatives. The proposed procedures are innovative and of interests in their own right. They are also used to estimate the sensitive measures. The asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators have been proved. We also propose a simple and intuitively appealing method for choosing the bandwidths. Two simulated examples are used as illustrations.