Edge statistics of large dimensional deformed rectangular matrices

Xiucai Ding University of California, Davis Fan Yang University of Pennsylvania

Probability Statistics Theory and Methods mathscidoc:2111.28002

We consider the edge statistics of large dimensional deformed rectangular matrices of the form $Y_t=Y+\sqrt{t}X,$ where $Y$ is a $p \times n$ deterministic signal matrix whose rank is comparable to $n$, $X$ is a $p\times n$ random noise matrix with centered i.i.d. entries with variance $n^{-1}$, and $t>0$ gives the noise level. This model is referred to as the interference-plus-noise matrix in the study of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, which belongs to the category of the so-called signal-plus-noise model. For the case $t=1$, the spectral statistics of this model have been studied to a certain extent in the literature \cite{DOZIER20071099,DOZIER2007678,VLM2012}. In this paper, we study the singular value and singular vector statistics of $Y_t$ around the right-most edge of the singular value spectrum in the harder regime $n^{-2/3}\ll t \ll 1$. This regime is harder than the $t=1$ case, because on one hand, the edge behavior of the empirical spectral distribution (ESD) of $YY^\top$ has a strong effect on the edge statistics of $Y_tY_t^\top$ since $t\ll 1$ is ``small", while on the other hand, the edge statistics of $Y_t$ is also not merely a perturbation of those of $Y$ since $t\gg n^{-2/3}$ is ``large". Under certain regularity assumptions on $Y,$ we prove the edge universality, eigenvalues rigidity and eigenvector delocalization for the matrices $Y_tY_t^\top$ and $Y_t^\top Y_t$. These results can be used to estimate and infer the massive MIMO system. To prove the main results, we analyze the edge behavior of the asymptotic ESD for $Y_tY_t^\top$, and establish some sharp local laws on the resolvent of $Y_tY_t^\top$. These results can be of independent interest, and used as useful inputs for many other problems regarding the spectral statistics of $Y_t$.
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  title={Edge statistics of large dimensional deformed rectangular matrices},
  author={Xiucai Ding, and Fan Yang},
Xiucai Ding, and Fan Yang. Edge statistics of large dimensional deformed rectangular matrices. 2021. http://archive.ymsc.tsinghua.edu.cn/pacm_paperurl/20211103235435165220882.
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