Wenjia JingYau Mathematical Sciences Center, Tsinghua University, No.1 Tsinghua Yuan, Beijing 100084, ChinaHiroyoshi MitakeGraduate School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tokyo 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8914, JapanHung V. TranDepartment of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Van Vleck hall, 480 Lincoln drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Analysis of PDEsmathscidoc:2206.03015
Journal of Differential Equations, 268, (6), 2886-2909, 2020.3
We study a generalized ergodic problem (E), which is a Hamilton-Jacobi equation of contact type, in the flat n-dimensional torus. We first obtain existence of solutions to this problem under quite general assumptions. Various examples are presented and analyzed to show that (E) does not have unique solutions in general. We then study uniqueness structures of solutions to (E) in the convex setting by using the nonlinear adjoint method.
We revisit the periodic homogenization of Dirichlet problems for the Laplace operator in perforated domains and establish a unified proof that works for different regimes of hole-cell ratios, which is the ratio between the scaling factor of the holes and that of the periodic cells. The approach is then made quantitative and yields correctors and error estimates for vanishing hole-cell ratios. For a positive volume fraction of holes, the approach is just the standard oscillating test function method; for a vanishing volume fraction of holes, we study asymptotic behaviors of properly rescaled cell problems and use them to build oscillating test functions. Our method reveals how the different regimes are intrinsically connected through the cell problems and the connection with periodic layer potentials.
Wenjia JingYau Mathematical Sciences Center, Tsinghua University, No.1 Tsinghua Yuan, Beijing 100084, ChinaOlivier PinaudDepartment of Mathematics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80525, USA
Analysis of PDEsmathscidoc:2206.03013
Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 24, (10), 5377-5407, 2019.10
This work concerns the analysis of wave propagation in random media. Our medium of interest is sea ice, which is a composite of a pure ice background and randomly located inclusions of brine and air. From a pulse emitted by a source above the sea ice layer, the main objective of this work is to derive a model for the backscattered signal measured at the source/detector location. The problem is difficult in that, in the practical configuration we consider, the wave impinges on the layer with a non-normal incidence. Since the sea ice is seen by the pulse as an effective (homogenized) medium, the energy is specularly reflected and the backscattered signal vanishes in a first order approximation. What is measured at the detector consists therefore of corrections to leading order terms, and we focus in this work on the homogenization corrector. We describe the propagation by a random Helmholtz equation, and derive an expression of the corrector in this layered framework. We moreover obtain a transport model for quadratic quantities in the random wavefield in a high frequency limit.
Wenjia JingYau Mathematical Sciences Center, Tsinghua University, No 1. Tsinghua Yuan, Beijing 100084, ChinaPanagiotis E. SouganidisDepartment of Mathematics, The University of Chicago, 5734 S. University Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, USAHung V. TranDepartment of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 480 Lincoln Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Analysis of PDEsOptimization and ControlProbabilitymathscidoc:2206.03012
Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems - S, 11, (5), 915-939, 2018.10
We study the averaging of fronts moving with positive oscillatory normal velocity, which is periodic in space and stationary ergodic in time. The problem can be formulated as the homogenization of coercive level set Hamilton-Jacobi equations with spatio-temporal oscillations. To overcome the difficulties due to the oscillations in time and the linear growth of the Hamiltonian, we first study the long time averaged behavior of the associated reachable sets using geometric arguments. The results are new for higher than one dimensions even in the space-time periodic setting.
We study the homogenization of a stationary conductivity problem in a random heterogeneous medium with highly oscillating conductivity coefficients and an ensemble of simply closed conductivity resistant membranes. This medium is randomly deformed and then rescaled from a periodic one with periodic membranes, in a manner similar to the random medium proposed by Blanc, Le Bris, and Lions (2006). Across the membranes, the flux is continuous but the potential field itself undergoes a jump of Robin-type. We prove that, for almost all realizations of the random deformation, as the small scale of variations of the medium goes to zero, the random conductivity problem is well approximated by that of an effective medium which has deterministic and constant coefficients and contains no membrane. The effective coefficients are explicitly represented. One of our main contributions is to provide a solution to the associated auxiliary problem that is posed on the whole space with infinitely many interfaces, a setting that is out of the standard stationary ergodic framework.
The focus of this work is on rigorous mathematical analysis of the topological derivative based detection algorithms for the localization of an elastic inclusion of vanishing characteristic size. A filtered quadratic misfit is considered, and the performance of the topological derivative imaging functional resulting therefrom is analyzed. Our analysis reveals that the imaging functional may not attain its maximum at the location of the inclusion. Moreover, the resolution of the image is below the diffraction limit. Both phenomena are due to the coupling of pressure and shear waves propagating with different wave speeds and polarization directions. A novel imaging functional based on the weighted Helmholtz decomposition of the topological derivative is, therefore, introduced. It is thereby substantiated that the maximum of the imaging functional is attained at the location of the inclusion and the resolution is enhanced and proves to be the diffraction limit. Finally, we investigate the stability of the proposed imaging functionals with respect to measurement and medium noises.
Habib AmmariD ́epartement de Math ́ematiques et Applications, ́Ecole Normale Sup ́erieure, 75230 Paris Cedex05, FranceJosselin GarnierLaboratoire de Probabilit ́es et Mod`eles Al ́eatoires & Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Universit ́eParis VII, 75205 Paris Cedex 13, FranceWenjia JingD ́epartement de Math ́ematiques et Applications, ́Ecole Normale Sup ́erieure, 75230 Paris Cedex05, France
We consider reflector imaging in a weakly random waveguide. We address the situation in which the source is farther from the reflector to be imaged than the energy equipartition distance, but the receiver array is closer to the reflector to be imaged than the energy equipartition distance. As a consequence, the reflector is illuminated by a partially coherent field and the signals recorded by the receiver array are noisy. This paper shows that migration of the recorded signals cannot give a good image, but an appropriate migration of the cross correlations of the recorded signals can give a very good image. The resolution and stability analysis of this original functional shows that the reflector can be localized with an accuracy of the order of the wavelength even when the receiver array has small aperture, and that broadband sources are necessary to ensure statistical stability, whatever the aperture of the array.
Guillaume BalDepartment of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, 10027 New York, USA.Wenjia JingD´epartement de Math´ematiques et Applications, Ecole Normale Sup´erieure, 45 Rue d’Ulm, 75230 Paris Cedex 05, France
Analysis of PDEsNumerical Analysis and Scientific ComputingProbabilitymathscidoc:2206.03008
This paper analyzes the random fluctuations obtained by a heterogeneous multi-scale first-order finite element method applied to solve elliptic equations with a random potential. Several multiscale numerical algorithms have been shown to correctly capture the homogenized limit of solutions of elliptic equations with coefficients modeled as stationary and ergodic random fields. Because theoretical results are available in the continuum setting for such equations, we consider here the case of a secondorder elliptic equations with random potential in two dimensions of space. We show that the random fluctuations of such solutions are correctly estimated by the heterogeneous multi-scale algorithm when appropriate fine-scale problems are solved on subsets that cover the whole computational domain. However, when the fine-scale problems are solved over patches that do not cover the entire domain, the random fluctuations may or may not be estimated accurately. In the case of random potentials with short-range interactions, the variance of the random fluctuations is amplified as the inverse of the fraction of the medium covered by the patches. In the case of random potentials with long-range interactions, however, such an amplification does not occur and random fluctuations are correctly captured independent of the (macroscopic) size of the patches. These results are consistent with those obtained in  for more general equations in the one-dimensional setting and provide indications on the loss in accuracy that results from using coarser, and hence computationally less intensive, algorithms.
Habib AmmariDepartment of Mathematics and Applications, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 45 Rue d’Ulm, 75005 Paris, FranceEmmanuel BossyInstitut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS UMR 7587, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, FranceJosselin GarnierLaboratoire de Probabilités et Modèles Aléatoires & Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Université Paris VII, 75205 Paris Cedex 13, FranceWenjia JingDepartment of Mathematics and Applications, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 45 Rue d’Ulm, 75005 Paris, FranceLaurent SeppecherDepartment of Mathematics and Applications, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 45 Rue d’Ulm, 75005 Paris, France
Analysis of PDEsMathematical Physicsmathscidoc:2206.03007
Journal of Mathematical Physics, 54, (2), 021501, 2013.2
The aim of this paper is to develop a mathematical framework for opto-elastography. In opto-elastography, a mechanical perturbation of the medium produces a decorrelation of optical speckle patterns due to the displacements of optical scatterers. To model this, we consider two optically random media, with the second medium obtained by shifting the first medium in some local region. We derive the radiative transfer equation for the cross-correlation of the wave fields in the media. Then we derive its diffusion approximation. In both the radiative transfer and the diffusion regimes, we relate the correlation of speckle patterns to the solutions of the radiative transfer and the diffusion equations. We present numerical simulations based on our model which are in agreement with recent experimental measurements.
Habib AmmariDepartment of Mathematics and Applications, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 45 Rue d’Ulm, 75005, Paris, FranceThomas BoulierDepartment of Mathematics and Applications, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 45 Rue d’Ulm, 75005, Paris, FranceJosselin GarnierLaboratoire de Probabilités et Modèles Aléatoires & Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Université Paris VII, 75205, Paris Cedex 13, FranceWenjia JingDepartment of Mathematics and Applications, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 45 Rue d’Ulm, 75005, Paris, FranceHyeonbae KangDepartment of Mathematics, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751, KoreaHan WangDepartment of Mathematics and Applications, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 45 Rue d’Ulm, 75005, Paris, France
Analysis of PDEsMathematical PhysicsNumerical Analysis and Scientific ComputingOptimization and Controlmathscidoc:2206.03006
Foundations of Computational Mathematics, 14, 27-62, 2013.9
The aim of this paper is to provide a fast and efficient procedure for (real-time) target identification in imaging based on matching on a dictionary of precomputed generalized polarization tensors (GPTs). The approach is based on some important properties of the GPTs and new invariants. A new shape representation is given and numerically tested in the presence of measurement noise. The stability and resolution of the proposed identification algorithm is numerically quantified. We compare the proposed GPT-based shape representation with a moment-based one.