We study the general problem of equidistribution of expanding translates of an analytic curve by an algebraic diagonal flow on the homogeneous space of a semisimple algebraic group G. We define two families of algebraic subvarieties of the associated partial flag variety, which give the obstructions to non-divergence and equidistribution. We apply this to prove that for Lebesgue almost every point on an analytic curve in the space of m × n real matrices whose image is not contained in any subvariety coming from these two families, Dirichlet’s theorem on simultaneous Diophantine approximation cannot be improved. The proof combines geometric invariant theory, Ratner’s theorem on measure rigidity for unipotent flows, and linearization technique.
We develop a generic game platform that can be used to model various real-world systems with multiple intelligent cloud-computing pools and parallel-queues for resources-competing users. Inside the platform, the software structure is modelled as Blockchain. All the users are associated with Big Data arrival streams whose random dynamics is modelled by triply stochastic renewal reward processes (TSRRPs). Each user may be served simultaneously by multiple pools while each pool with parallel- servers may also serve multi-users at the same time via smart policies in the Blockchain, e.g. a Nash equilibrium point myopically at each fixed time to a game-theoretic scheduling problem. To illustrate the effectiveness of our game platform, we model the performance measures of its internal data flow dynamics (queue length and workload processes) as reflecting diffusion with regime-switchings (RDRSs) under our scheduling policies. By RDRS models, we can prove our myopic game-theoretic policy to be an asymptotic Pareto minimal-dual-cost Nash equilibrium one globally over the whole time horizon to a randomly evolving dynamic game problem. Iterative schemes for simulating our multi-dimensional RDRS models are also developed with the support of numerical comparisons.
We study the well-posedness of a unified system of coupled forward-backward stochastic differential equations (FB-SDEs)
with Levy jumps and double completely-S skew reflections. Owing to the reflections, the solution to an embedded Skorohod problem may be not unique, i.e., bifurcations may occur at reflection boundaries, the well-known contraction mapping approach can not be extended directly to solve our problem. Thus, we develop a weak convergence method to prove the well-posedness of an adapted 6-tuple weak solution in the sense of distribution to the unified system. The proof heavily depends on newly established Malliavin calculus for vector-valued Levy processes together with a generalized linear growth and Lipschitz condition that guarantees the well-posedness of the unified system even under a random environment. Nevertheless,
if a more strict boundary condition is imposed, i.e., the spectral radii in certain sense for the reflections are strictly less than the unity, a unique adapted 6-tuple strong solution in the sense of sample pathwise is concerned. In addition, as applications and economical studies of our unified system, we also develop new techniques including deriving a generalized mutual information formula for signal processing over possible non-Gaussian channels with multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antennas and dynamics driven by Levy processes.
There is much research on the dynamical complexity on irregular sets andlevel sets of ergodic average from the perspective of density in base space, theHausdorff dimension, Lebesgue positive measure, positive or full topological entropy (andtopological pressure), etc. However, this is not the case from the viewpoint of chaos.There are many results on the relationship of positive topological entropy and variouschaos. However, positive topological entropy does not imply a strong version of chaos,called DC1. Therefore, it is non-trivial to study DC1 on irregular sets and level sets. Inthis paper, we will show that, for dynamical systems with specification properties, thereexist uncountable DC1-scrambled subsets in irregular sets and level sets. Meanwhile, weprove that several recurrent level sets of points with different recurrent frequency haveuncountable DC1-scrambled subsets. The major argument in proving the above results isthat there exists uncountable DC1-scrambled subsets in saturated sets.
For any dynamical system T : X → X of a compact metric
space X with g-almost product property and uniform separation property, under the assumptions that the periodic points
are dense in X and the periodic measures are dense in the
space of invariant measures, we distinguish various periodiclike recurrences and find that they all carry full topological
entropy and so do their gap-sets. In particular, this implies
that any two kind of periodic-like recurrences are essentially
different. Moreover, we coordinate periodic-like recurrences
with (ir)regularity and obtain lots of generalized multifractal analyses for all continuous observable functions. These
results are suitable for all β-shifts (β > 1), topological mixing
subshifts of finite type, topological mixing expanding maps or
topological mixing hyperbolic diffeomorphisms, etc.
Roughly speaking, we combine many different “eyes” (i.e.,
observable functions and periodic-like recurrences) to observe
the dynamical complexity and obtain a Refined Dynamical
Structure for Recurrence Theory and Multi-fractal Analysis.
This paper presents a 2×2 dynamical system to study the cyclic appearance and disappearance of the gas phase in a two-component (CO2, H2O), two phase (gas, liquid) flow in a single pore. Depending on injection rate, linearization of the dynamical system around equilibrium shows that the gas phase can exhibit two behaviors, either cyclically vanishing and appearing, or approaching a steady-state volume value. Numerical simulations were also run on the fully non-linear dynamical system to verify the results of the linearized model.
We study generalized Hopf–Cole transformations motivated by the Schrödinger bridge problem, which can be seen as a boundary value Hamiltonian system on the Wasserstein space. We prove that generalized Hopf–Cole transformations are symplectic submersions in the Wasserstein symplectic geometry. Many examples, including a Hopf–Cole transformation for the shallow water equations, are given. Based on this transformation, energy splitting inequalities are provided.
Yujie YeDepartment of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of AmericaXin KangShanghai Center for Mathematical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, ChinaJordan BaileyDepartment of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of AmericaChunhe LiShanghai Center for Mathematical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, ChinaTian HongDepartment of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America
Multistep cell fate transitions with stepwise changes of transcriptional profiles are common to many developmental, regenerative and pathological processes. The multiple intermediate cell lineage states can serve as differentiation checkpoints or branching points for channeling cells to more than one lineages. However, mechanisms underlying these transitions remain elusive. Here, we explored gene regulatory circuits that can generate multiple intermediate cellular states with stepwise modulations of transcription factors. With unbiased searching in the network topology space, we found a motif family containing a large set of networks can give rise to four attractors with the stepwise regulations of transcription factors, which limit the reversibility of three consecutive steps of the lineage transition. We found that there is an enrichment of these motifs in a transcriptional network controlling the early T cell development, and a mathematical model based on this network recapitulates multistep transitions in the early T cell lineage commitment. By calculating the energy landscape and minimum action paths for the T cell model, we quantified the stochastic dynamics of the critical factors in response to the differentiation signal with fluctuations. These results are in good agreement with experimental observations and they suggest the stable characteristics of the intermediate states in the T cell differentiation. These dynamical features may help to direct the cells to correct lineages during development. Our findings provide general design principles for multistep cell linage transitions and new insights into the early T cell development. The network motifs containing a large family of topologies can be useful for analyzing diverse biological systems with multistep transitions.
The fundamental problem of nonlinear filtering theory is how to solve robust D-M-Z equation in real time and in memoryless manner. This paper describes a new real time algorithm which reduces the nonlinear filtering problem to off-line computations. Our algorithm gives convergent solutions in both pointwise sense and L/sup 2/ in case that the drift term and observation dynamic term have linear growths. The algorithm presented is slightly better than that given in our previous paper (2000).
Using the tri-hamiltonian splitting method, the authors of [Anco and Mobasheramini, Physica D, 355: 1--23, 2017] derived two U (1) -invariant nonlinear PDEs that arise from the hierarchy of the nonlinear Schrdinger equation and admit peakons ($ non-smooth\solitons $). In the present paper, these two peakon PDEs are generalized to a family of U (1) -invariant peakon PDEs parametrized by the real projective line U (1) . All equations in this family are shown to posses $ conservative\peakon\solutions $(whose Sobolev U (1) norm is time invariant). The Hamiltonian structure for the sector of conservative peakons is identified and the peakon ODEs are shown to be Hamiltonian with respect to several Poisson structures. It is shown that the resulting Hamilonian peakon flows in the case of the two peakon equations derived in [Anco and Mobasheramini, Physica D, 355: 1--23, 2017] form orthogonal families, while in general the Hamiltonian peakon flows for two different equations in the general family intersect at a fixed angle equal to the angle between two lines in U (1) parametrizing those two equations. Moreover, it is shown that inverse spectral methods allow one to solve explicitly the dynamics of conservative peakons using explicit solutions to a certain interpolation problem. The graphs of multipeakon solutions confirm the existence of multipeakon breathers as well as asymptotic formation of pairs of two peakon bound states in the non-periodic time domain.
In this paper, we show that the coupled modified KdV equations possess rich mathematical structures and some remarkable properties. The connections between the system and skew orthogonal polynomials, convergence acceleration algorithms and Laurent property are discussed in detail.
Firstly, a formal correspondence is established between the CamassaHolm (CH) equation and a two-component modified CH (or called SQQ) equation according to the method of <i>moment modification</i> for multipeakon formulae. Secondly, based on the generalized nonisospectral CH equation in Chang et al. (2014)  and the interlacing multipeakons of the two-component modified CH equation in Chang et al. (2016) , we propose a new generalized two-component modified CH equation with two parameters, which possesses a nonisospectral Lax pair. The proposed equation still admits multipeakon solutions of explicit and closed form. Sufficient conditions for global existence of solutions are given and two concrete examples with certain interesting phenomenon are presented. Last of all, as a by-product, a generalized nonisospectral modified CH equation is deduced, together with its Lax pair.
In this paper, we present a generalized Toeplitz determinant solution for the generalized Schur flow and propose a mixed form of the two known relativistic Toda chains together with its generalized Toeplitz determinant solution. In addition, we also give a Hankel type determinant solution for a nonisospectral Toda lattice. All these results are obtained by technical determinant operations. As a bonus, we finally obtain some new combinatorial numbers based on the moment relations with respect to these semi-discrete integrable systems and give the corresponding combinatorial interpretations by means of the lattice paths.
In this paper we give a combinatorial proof of an addition formula for weighted partial Motzkin paths. The addition formula allows us to determine the $ LDU $ decomposition of a Hankel matrix of the polynomial sequence defined by weighted partial Motzkin paths. As a direct consequence, we get the determinant of the Hankel matrix of certain combinatorial sequences. In addition, we obtain an addition formula for weighted large Schrder paths.
In this paper, we propose a direct method to evaluate Hankel determinants for some generating functions satisfying a certain type of quadratic equations, which cover generating functions of Catalan numbers, Motzkin numbers and Schrder numbers. Additionally, four recent conjectures proposed by Cigler (2011)  are proved.
The modified Camassa-Holm (also called FORQ) equation is one of numerous <i>cousins</i> of the Camassa-Holm equation possessing non-smoth solitons (<i>peakons</i>) as special solutions. The peakon sector of solutions is not uniquely defined: in one peakon sector (dissipative<sup>a</sup>) the Sobolev <i>H</i><sup>1</sup> norm is not preserved, in the other sector (conservative), introduced in , the time evolution of peakons leaves the <i>H</i><sup>1</sup> norm invariant. In this Letter, it is shown that the conservative peakon equations of the modified Camassa-Holm can be given an appropriate Poisson structure relative to which the equations are Hamiltonian and, in fact, Liouville integrable. The latter is proved directly by exploiting the inverse spectral techniques, especially asymptotic analysis of solutions, developed elsewhere .
The Novikov equation is an integrable analogue of the CamassaHolm equation with a cubic (rather than quadratic) nonlinear term. Both these equations support a special family of weak solutions called multipeakon solutions. In this paper, an approach involving Pfaffians is applied to study multipeakons of the Novikov equation. First, we show that the Novikov peakon ODEs describe an isospectral flow on the manifold cut out by certain Pfaffian identities. Then, a link between the Novikov peakons and the finite Toda lattice of BKP type (B-Toda lattice) is established based on the use of Pfaffians. Finally, certain generalizations of the Novikov equation and the finite B-Toda lattice are proposed together with special solutions. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the peakon problem is interpreted in terms of Pfaffians.
Many discrete integrable systems exhibit the Laurent phenomenon. In this paper, we investigate three integrable systems: the Somos-4 recurrence, the Somos-5 recurrence, and a system related to so-called A_1 A_1-system, whose general solutions are derived in terms of Hankel determinant. As a result, we directly confirm that they satisfy the Laurent property. Additionally, it is shown that the Somos-5 recurrence can be viewed as a specified Backlund transformation of the Somos-4 recurrence. Related topics about Somos polynomials are also studied.
In this Letter we propose that for Lax integrable nonlinear partial differential equations the natural concept of weak solutions is implied by the compatibility condition for the respective distributional Lax pairs. We illustrate our proposal by comparing two concepts of weak solutions of the modified Camassa-Holm equation pointing out that in the <i>peakon</i> sector (a family of non-smooth solitons) only one of them, namely the one obtained from the distributional compatibility condition, supports the time invariance of the Sobolev <i>H</i><sup>1</sup> norm.
Motivated by the paper of Beals, Sattinger and Szmigielski (2000) , we propose an extension of the CamassaHolm equation, which also admits the multipeakon solutions. The novel aspect is that our approach is mainly based on classic determinant technique. Furthermore, the proposed equation is shown to possess a nonisospectral Lax pair.