Pierre DegondDepartment of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UKSara Merino-AceitunoDepartment of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK; Faculty of Mathematics, University of Vienna, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090, Vienna, Austria; Department of Mathematics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9RH, UKFabien VergnetLaboratoire de mathématiques d’Orsay (LMO), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, Universit Paris-Saclay, 15 rue Georges Clémenceau, 91405, Orsay Cedex, FranceHui YuInstitut für Geometrie und Praktische Mathematik, RWTH Aachen University, 52062, Aachen, Germany; Mathematical Sciences Center, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing, 100084, China
Fluid Dynamics and Shock Wavesmathscidoc:2205.14015
Journal of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics, 21, (6), 2019.1
We derive macroscopic dynamics for self-propelled particles in a fluid. The starting point is a coupled Vicsek–Stokes system. The Vicsek model describes self-propelled agents interacting through alignment. It provides a phenomenological description of hydrodynamic interactions between agents at high density. Stokes equations describe a low Reynolds number fluid. These two dynamics are coupled by the interaction between the agents and the fluid. The fluid contributes to rotating the particles through Jeffery’s equation. Particle self-propulsion induces a force dipole on the fluid. After coarse-graining we obtain a coupled Self-Organised Hydrodynamics–Stokes system. We perform a linear stability analysis for this system which shows that both pullers and pushers have unstable modes. We conclude by providing extensions of the Vicsek–Stokes model including short-distance repulsion, finite particle inertia and finite Reynolds number fluid regime.
We analyze the power spectra and structure functions (SFs) of the temperature and radial velocity fields, calculated in the radial and azimuthal directions, in annular centrifugal Rayleigh–Bénard convection (ACRBC) for Rayleigh number Ra ∈[108,1011], Prandtl number Pr = 10.7, and inverse Rossby number Ro−1=16 using the spatial data obtained by quasi-two-dimensional direct numerical simulation. Bolgiano and Obukhov-like (BO59-like) scalings for the energy spectrum in both the azimuthal and radial directions and thermal spectrum in the azimuthal direction are observed. The range of BO59-like scaling becomes wider as Ra increases. At Ra=1011, it is found that BO59-like scaling Eu(kr)∼kr−11/5 spans nearly two decades for the energy spectrum calculated in the radial direction. Power-law fittings in the range larger than the Bolgiano scales, the scaling exponents of transverse and longitudinal velocity SFs vs the order coincide with the theoretical prediction of BO59 scaling ζ u p =3p/5 basically. The second-order temperature SFs exhibit a gradual transition from the Obukhov–Corrsin behavior at scales smaller than the Bolgiano scales to the BO59 behavior at scales larger than the Bolgiano scales. The slopes from the third to sixth-order temperature SFs are similar, which is similar to classical Rayleigh–Bénard convection and Rayleigh–Taylor turbulence. The probability density functions (p.d.f.) of temperature fluctuations δT/σT reveal the cold plumes are strong and the p.d.f. in different regions at high Ra are similar. The stronger turbulent-mixing and larger centrifugal buoyancy in ACRBC may result in the BO59-like scaling.
We successfully perform the three-dimensional tracking in a turbulent fluid flow of small axisymmetrical particles that are neutrally-buoyant and bottom-heavy, i.e., they have a non-homogeneous mass distribution along their symmetry axis. We experimentally show how a tiny mass inhomogeneity can affect the particle orientation along the preferred vertical direction and modify its tumbling rate. The experiment is complemented by a series of simulations based on realistic Navier-Stokes turbulence and on a point-like particle model that is capable to explore the full range of parameter space characterized by the gravitational torque stability number and by the particle aspect ratio. We propose a theoretical perturbative prediction valid in the high bottom-heaviness regime that agrees well with the observed preferential orientation and tumbling rate of the particles. We also show that the heavy-tail shape of the probability distribution function of the tumbling rate is weakly affected by the bottom-heaviness of the particles.
Based on the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations, the linear stability of thermal convection in rapidly rotating spherical shells of various radius ratios eta is studied for a wide range of Taylor number Ta, Prandtl number Pr and the number of density scale height N-rho. Besides the classical inertial mode and columnar mode, which are widely studied by the Boussinesq approximation and anelastic approximation, the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode is also identified in a wide range of N-rho and Pr for all eta considered, and this mode mainly occurs in the convection with relatively small Pr and large N.. The instability processes are classified into five categories. In general, for the specified wavenumber m, the parameter space (Pr, N-rho) of the fifth category, in which the base state loses stability via the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode and remains unstable, shrinks as eta increases. The asymptotic scaling behaviours of the critical Rayleigh numbers Ra-c and corresponding wavenumbers m(c) to Ta are found at different eta for the same instability mode. As eta increases, the flow stability is strengthened. Furthermore, the linearized perturbation equations and Reynolds-Orr equation are employed to quantitatively analyse the mechanical mechanisms and flow instability mechanisms of different modes. In the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode, the time-derivative term of disturbance density in the continuity equation and the diffusion term of disturbance temperature in the energy equation are found to be critical, while in the columnar and inertial modes, they can generally be ignored. Because the time-derivative term of the disturbance density in the continuity equation cannot be ignored, the anelastic approximation fails to capture the instability mode in the small-Pr and large-N-rho system, where convection onset is dominated by the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode. However, all the modes are primarily governed by the balance between the Coriolis force and the pressure gradient, based on the momentum equation. Physically, the most important difference between the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode and the columnar mode is the role played by the disturbance pressure. The disturbance pressure performs negative work for the former mode, which appears to stabilize the flow, while it destabilizes the flow for the latter mode. As eta increases, in the former mode the relative work performed by the disturbance pressure increases and in the latter mode decreases.
Shuang LiuUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaZhenhua WanUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaRui YanUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaChao SunTsinghua UniversityDejun SunUniversity of Science and Technology of China
Fluid Dynamics and Shock Wavesmathscidoc:2205.14011
The onset of thermal convection in a rapidly rotating spherical shell is studied by linear stability analysis based on the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Compressibility is quantified by the number of density scale heights N-rho, which measures the intensity of density stratification of the motionless, polytropic base state. The nearly adiabatic flow with polytropic index n = 1.499 < na = 1.5 is considered, where na is the adiabatic polytropic index. By investigating the stability of the base state with respect to the disturbance of specified wavenumber, the instability process is found to be sensitive to the Prandtl number Pr and to N-rho. For large Pr and small N-rho, the quasi-geostrophic columnar mode loses stability first; while for relatively small Pr a new quasi-geostrophic compressible mode is identified, which becomes unstable first under strong density stratification. The inertial mode can also occur first for relatively small Pr and a certain intensity of density stratification in the parameter range considered. Although the Rayleigh numbers Ra for the onsets of the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode and columnar mode are different by several orders of magnitude, we find that they follow very similar scaling laws with the Taylor number. The critical Ra for convection onset is found to be always positive, in contrast with previous results based on the widely used anelastic model that convection can occur at negative Ra. By evaluating the relative magnitude of the time derivative of density perturbation in the continuity equation, we show that the anelastic approximation in the present system cannot be applied in the small-Ra and large-N-rho regime.
Shuang LiuUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaShuning XiaShanghai UniversityRui YanUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaZhenhua WanUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaDejun SunUniversity of Science and Technology of China
Fluid Dynamics and Shock Wavesmathscidoc:2205.14010
The influences of non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq (NOB) effects on flow instabilities and bifurcation characteristics of Rayleigh-Benard convection are examined. The working fluid is air with reference Prandtl number Pr = 0.71 and contained in two-dimensional rigid cavities of finite aspect ratios. The fluid flow is governed by the low-Mach-number equations, accounting for the NOB effects due to large temperature difference involving flow compressibility and variations of fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity with temperature. The intensity of NOB effects is measured by the dimensionless temperature differential epsilon. Linear stability analysis of the thermal conduction state is performed. An epsilon(2) scaling of the leading-order corrections of critical Rayleigh number Ra-cr and disturbance growth rate sigma due to NOB effects is identified, which is a consequence of an intrinsic symmetry of the system. The influences of weak NOB effects on flow instabilities are further studied by perturbation expansion of linear stability equations with regard to epsilon, and then the influence of aspect ratio A is investigated in detail. NOB effects are found to enhance (weaken) flow stability in large (narrow) cavities. Detailed contributions of compressibility, viscosity and buoyancy actions on disturbance kinetic energy growth are identified quantitatively by energy analysis. Besides, a weakly nonlinear theory is developed based on centre-manifold reduction to investigate the NOB influences on bifurcation characteristics near convection onset, and amplitude equations are constructed for both codimension-one and -two cases. Rich bifurcation regimes are observed based on amplitude equations and also confirmed by direct numerical simulation. Weakly nonlinear analysis is useful for organizing and understanding these simulation results.
We report a numerical study of Rayleigh-Benard convection through random porous media using pore-scale modelling, focusing on the Lagrangian dynamics of fluid particles and heat transfer for varied porosities . Due to the interaction between the porous medium and the coherent flow structures, the flow is found to be highly heterogeneous, consisting of convection channels with strong flow strength and stagnant regions with low velocities. The modifications of flow field due to porous structure have a significant influence on the dynamics of fluid particles. Evaluation of the particle displacement along the trajectory reveals the emergence of anomalous transport for long times as is decreased, which is associated with the long-time correlation of Lagrangian velocity of the fluid. As porosity is decreased, the cross-correlation between the vertical velocity and temperature fluctuation is enhanced, which reveals a mechanism to enhance the heat transfer in porous-media convection.
In this numerical study on Rayleigh-Benard convection, we seek to improve the heat transfer by passive means. To this end we introduce a single tilted conductive barrier centered in an aspect ratio one cell, breaking the symmetry of the geometry and to channel the ascending hot and descending cold plumes. We study the global and local heat transfer and the flow organization for Rayleigh numbers 10(5) <= Ra <= 10(9) for a fixed Prandtl number of Pr = 4.3. We find that the global heat transfer can be enhanced up to 18%, and locally around 800%. The averaged Reynolds number is always decreased when a barrier is introduced, even for those cases where the global heat transfer is increased. We map the entire parameter space spanned by the orientation and the size of a single barrier for Ra = 10(8).
This paper presents a numerical study of the Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC) in two-dimensional cells with asymmetric (ratchet) roughness distributed on the top and bottom surfaces. We consider two aspect ratios of roughness gamma = 1, 2 and the range of the Rayleigh number 1.0 x 10(6) <= Ra <= 2.0 x 10(10) with the Prandtl number Pr = 4. The influences of the roughness on the heat transfer and the flow structure are found to be strongly dependent on both Ra and the roughness geometry. We find that the roughness can have a significant influence on the organization of the secondary corner rolls, and the corner rolls are evidently suppressed by the roughness for intermediate values of Ra. In the presence of the roughness, a sharp jump of the Nu values is identified as the Ra value is slightly increased, accompanied with the dramatic changes of the large-scale flow structure and the plume dynamics. The influences of the ratchet orientation on the heat transfer and the flow structure are discussed and analyzed.
We study the translational and rotational dynamics of neutrally buoyant finite-size spheroids in hydrodynamic turbulence by means of fully resolved numerical simulations. We examine axisymmetric shapes, from oblate to prolate, and the particle volume dependences. We show that the accelerations and rotations experienced by non-spherical inertial-scale particles result from volume filtered fluid forces and torques, similar to spherical particles. However, the particle orientations carry signatures of preferential alignments with the surrounding flow structures, which are reflected in distinct axial and lateral fluctuations for accelerations and rotation rates. The randomization of orientations does not occur even for particles with volume-equivalent diameter size in the inertial range, here up to 60 dissipative units (eta) at Taylor-scale Reynolds number Re-lambda = 120. Additionally, we demonstrate that the role of fluid boundary layers around the particles cannot be neglected in reaching a quantitative understanding of particle statistical dynamics, as they affect the intensities of the angular velocities and the relative importance of tumbling with respect to spinning rotations. This study brings to the fore the importance of inertial-scale flow structures in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence and their impacts on the transport of neutrally buoyant bodies with sizes in the inertial range.