Pierre DegondDepartment of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UKSara Merino-AceitunoDepartment of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK; Faculty of Mathematics, University of Vienna, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090, Vienna, Austria; Department of Mathematics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9RH, UKFabien VergnetLaboratoire de mathématiques d’Orsay (LMO), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, Universit Paris-Saclay, 15 rue Georges Clémenceau, 91405, Orsay Cedex, FranceHui YuInstitut für Geometrie und Praktische Mathematik, RWTH Aachen University, 52062, Aachen, Germany; Mathematical Sciences Center, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing, 100084, China
Fluid Dynamics and Shock Wavesmathscidoc:2205.14015
Journal of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics, 21, (6), 2019.1
We derive macroscopic dynamics for self-propelled particles in a fluid. The starting point is a coupled Vicsek–Stokes system. The Vicsek model describes self-propelled agents interacting through alignment. It provides a phenomenological description of hydrodynamic interactions between agents at high density. Stokes equations describe a low Reynolds number fluid. These two dynamics are coupled by the interaction between the agents and the fluid. The fluid contributes to rotating the particles through Jeffery’s equation. Particle self-propulsion induces a force dipole on the fluid. After coarse-graining we obtain a coupled Self-Organised Hydrodynamics–Stokes system. We perform a linear stability analysis for this system which shows that both pullers and pushers have unstable modes. We conclude by providing extensions of the Vicsek–Stokes model including short-distance repulsion, finite particle inertia and finite Reynolds number fluid regime.
We analyze the power spectra and structure functions (SFs) of the temperature and radial velocity fields, calculated in the radial and azimuthal directions, in annular centrifugal Rayleigh–Bénard convection (ACRBC) for Rayleigh number Ra ∈[108,1011], Prandtl number Pr = 10.7, and inverse Rossby number Ro−1=16 using the spatial data obtained by quasi-two-dimensional direct numerical simulation. Bolgiano and Obukhov-like (BO59-like) scalings for the energy spectrum in both the azimuthal and radial directions and thermal spectrum in the azimuthal direction are observed. The range of BO59-like scaling becomes wider as Ra increases. At Ra=1011, it is found that BO59-like scaling Eu(kr)∼kr−11/5 spans nearly two decades for the energy spectrum calculated in the radial direction. Power-law fittings in the range larger than the Bolgiano scales, the scaling exponents of transverse and longitudinal velocity SFs vs the order coincide with the theoretical prediction of BO59 scaling ζ u p =3p/5 basically. The second-order temperature SFs exhibit a gradual transition from the Obukhov–Corrsin behavior at scales smaller than the Bolgiano scales to the BO59 behavior at scales larger than the Bolgiano scales. The slopes from the third to sixth-order temperature SFs are similar, which is similar to classical Rayleigh–Bénard convection and Rayleigh–Taylor turbulence. The probability density functions (p.d.f.) of temperature fluctuations δT/σT reveal the cold plumes are strong and the p.d.f. in different regions at high Ra are similar. The stronger turbulent-mixing and larger centrifugal buoyancy in ACRBC may result in the BO59-like scaling.
We successfully perform the three-dimensional tracking in a turbulent fluid flow of small axisymmetrical particles that are neutrally-buoyant and bottom-heavy, i.e., they have a non-homogeneous mass distribution along their symmetry axis. We experimentally show how a tiny mass inhomogeneity can affect the particle orientation along the preferred vertical direction and modify its tumbling rate. The experiment is complemented by a series of simulations based on realistic Navier-Stokes turbulence and on a point-like particle model that is capable to explore the full range of parameter space characterized by the gravitational torque stability number and by the particle aspect ratio. We propose a theoretical perturbative prediction valid in the high bottom-heaviness regime that agrees well with the observed preferential orientation and tumbling rate of the particles. We also show that the heavy-tail shape of the probability distribution function of the tumbling rate is weakly affected by the bottom-heaviness of the particles.
Based on the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations, the linear stability of thermal convection in rapidly rotating spherical shells of various radius ratios eta is studied for a wide range of Taylor number Ta, Prandtl number Pr and the number of density scale height N-rho. Besides the classical inertial mode and columnar mode, which are widely studied by the Boussinesq approximation and anelastic approximation, the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode is also identified in a wide range of N-rho and Pr for all eta considered, and this mode mainly occurs in the convection with relatively small Pr and large N.. The instability processes are classified into five categories. In general, for the specified wavenumber m, the parameter space (Pr, N-rho) of the fifth category, in which the base state loses stability via the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode and remains unstable, shrinks as eta increases. The asymptotic scaling behaviours of the critical Rayleigh numbers Ra-c and corresponding wavenumbers m(c) to Ta are found at different eta for the same instability mode. As eta increases, the flow stability is strengthened. Furthermore, the linearized perturbation equations and Reynolds-Orr equation are employed to quantitatively analyse the mechanical mechanisms and flow instability mechanisms of different modes. In the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode, the time-derivative term of disturbance density in the continuity equation and the diffusion term of disturbance temperature in the energy equation are found to be critical, while in the columnar and inertial modes, they can generally be ignored. Because the time-derivative term of the disturbance density in the continuity equation cannot be ignored, the anelastic approximation fails to capture the instability mode in the small-Pr and large-N-rho system, where convection onset is dominated by the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode. However, all the modes are primarily governed by the balance between the Coriolis force and the pressure gradient, based on the momentum equation. Physically, the most important difference between the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode and the columnar mode is the role played by the disturbance pressure. The disturbance pressure performs negative work for the former mode, which appears to stabilize the flow, while it destabilizes the flow for the latter mode. As eta increases, in the former mode the relative work performed by the disturbance pressure increases and in the latter mode decreases.
Shuang LiuUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaZhenhua WanUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaRui YanUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaChao SunTsinghua UniversityDejun SunUniversity of Science and Technology of China
Fluid Dynamics and Shock Wavesmathscidoc:2205.14011
The onset of thermal convection in a rapidly rotating spherical shell is studied by linear stability analysis based on the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Compressibility is quantified by the number of density scale heights N-rho, which measures the intensity of density stratification of the motionless, polytropic base state. The nearly adiabatic flow with polytropic index n = 1.499 < na = 1.5 is considered, where na is the adiabatic polytropic index. By investigating the stability of the base state with respect to the disturbance of specified wavenumber, the instability process is found to be sensitive to the Prandtl number Pr and to N-rho. For large Pr and small N-rho, the quasi-geostrophic columnar mode loses stability first; while for relatively small Pr a new quasi-geostrophic compressible mode is identified, which becomes unstable first under strong density stratification. The inertial mode can also occur first for relatively small Pr and a certain intensity of density stratification in the parameter range considered. Although the Rayleigh numbers Ra for the onsets of the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode and columnar mode are different by several orders of magnitude, we find that they follow very similar scaling laws with the Taylor number. The critical Ra for convection onset is found to be always positive, in contrast with previous results based on the widely used anelastic model that convection can occur at negative Ra. By evaluating the relative magnitude of the time derivative of density perturbation in the continuity equation, we show that the anelastic approximation in the present system cannot be applied in the small-Ra and large-N-rho regime.
Shuang LiuUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaShuning XiaShanghai UniversityRui YanUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaZhenhua WanUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaDejun SunUniversity of Science and Technology of China
Fluid Dynamics and Shock Wavesmathscidoc:2205.14010
The influences of non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq (NOB) effects on flow instabilities and bifurcation characteristics of Rayleigh-Benard convection are examined. The working fluid is air with reference Prandtl number Pr = 0.71 and contained in two-dimensional rigid cavities of finite aspect ratios. The fluid flow is governed by the low-Mach-number equations, accounting for the NOB effects due to large temperature difference involving flow compressibility and variations of fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity with temperature. The intensity of NOB effects is measured by the dimensionless temperature differential epsilon. Linear stability analysis of the thermal conduction state is performed. An epsilon(2) scaling of the leading-order corrections of critical Rayleigh number Ra-cr and disturbance growth rate sigma due to NOB effects is identified, which is a consequence of an intrinsic symmetry of the system. The influences of weak NOB effects on flow instabilities are further studied by perturbation expansion of linear stability equations with regard to epsilon, and then the influence of aspect ratio A is investigated in detail. NOB effects are found to enhance (weaken) flow stability in large (narrow) cavities. Detailed contributions of compressibility, viscosity and buoyancy actions on disturbance kinetic energy growth are identified quantitatively by energy analysis. Besides, a weakly nonlinear theory is developed based on centre-manifold reduction to investigate the NOB influences on bifurcation characteristics near convection onset, and amplitude equations are constructed for both codimension-one and -two cases. Rich bifurcation regimes are observed based on amplitude equations and also confirmed by direct numerical simulation. Weakly nonlinear analysis is useful for organizing and understanding these simulation results.
We report a numerical study of Rayleigh-Benard convection through random porous media using pore-scale modelling, focusing on the Lagrangian dynamics of fluid particles and heat transfer for varied porosities . Due to the interaction between the porous medium and the coherent flow structures, the flow is found to be highly heterogeneous, consisting of convection channels with strong flow strength and stagnant regions with low velocities. The modifications of flow field due to porous structure have a significant influence on the dynamics of fluid particles. Evaluation of the particle displacement along the trajectory reveals the emergence of anomalous transport for long times as is decreased, which is associated with the long-time correlation of Lagrangian velocity of the fluid. As porosity is decreased, the cross-correlation between the vertical velocity and temperature fluctuation is enhanced, which reveals a mechanism to enhance the heat transfer in porous-media convection.
In this numerical study on Rayleigh-Benard convection, we seek to improve the heat transfer by passive means. To this end we introduce a single tilted conductive barrier centered in an aspect ratio one cell, breaking the symmetry of the geometry and to channel the ascending hot and descending cold plumes. We study the global and local heat transfer and the flow organization for Rayleigh numbers 10(5) <= Ra <= 10(9) for a fixed Prandtl number of Pr = 4.3. We find that the global heat transfer can be enhanced up to 18%, and locally around 800%. The averaged Reynolds number is always decreased when a barrier is introduced, even for those cases where the global heat transfer is increased. We map the entire parameter space spanned by the orientation and the size of a single barrier for Ra = 10(8).
This paper presents a numerical study of the Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC) in two-dimensional cells with asymmetric (ratchet) roughness distributed on the top and bottom surfaces. We consider two aspect ratios of roughness gamma = 1, 2 and the range of the Rayleigh number 1.0 x 10(6) <= Ra <= 2.0 x 10(10) with the Prandtl number Pr = 4. The influences of the roughness on the heat transfer and the flow structure are found to be strongly dependent on both Ra and the roughness geometry. We find that the roughness can have a significant influence on the organization of the secondary corner rolls, and the corner rolls are evidently suppressed by the roughness for intermediate values of Ra. In the presence of the roughness, a sharp jump of the Nu values is identified as the Ra value is slightly increased, accompanied with the dramatic changes of the large-scale flow structure and the plume dynamics. The influences of the ratchet orientation on the heat transfer and the flow structure are discussed and analyzed.
We study the translational and rotational dynamics of neutrally buoyant finite-size spheroids in hydrodynamic turbulence by means of fully resolved numerical simulations. We examine axisymmetric shapes, from oblate to prolate, and the particle volume dependences. We show that the accelerations and rotations experienced by non-spherical inertial-scale particles result from volume filtered fluid forces and torques, similar to spherical particles. However, the particle orientations carry signatures of preferential alignments with the surrounding flow structures, which are reflected in distinct axial and lateral fluctuations for accelerations and rotation rates. The randomization of orientations does not occur even for particles with volume-equivalent diameter size in the inertial range, here up to 60 dissipative units (eta) at Taylor-scale Reynolds number Re-lambda = 120. Additionally, we demonstrate that the role of fluid boundary layers around the particles cannot be neglected in reaching a quantitative understanding of particle statistical dynamics, as they affect the intensities of the angular velocities and the relative importance of tumbling with respect to spinning rotations. This study brings to the fore the importance of inertial-scale flow structures in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence and their impacts on the transport of neutrally buoyant bodies with sizes in the inertial range.
Shuang LiuTsinghua UniversityLinfeng JiangTsinghua UniversityKai Leong ChongUniversity of TwenteXiaojue ZhuHarvard UniversityZhenhua WanUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaRoberto VerziccoUniversity of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’Richard J. A. M. StevensUniversity of TwenteDetlef LohseUniversity of TwenteChao SunTsinghua University
Fluid Dynamics and Shock Wavesmathscidoc:2205.14005
We perform a numerical study of the heat transfer and flow structure of Rayleigh-Benard (RB) convection in (in most cases regular) porous media, which are comprised of circular, solid obstacles located on a square lattice. This study is focused on the role of porosity in the flow properties during the transition process from the traditional RB convection with (so no obstacles included) to Darcy-type porous-media convection with approaching 0. Simulations are carried out in a cell with unity aspect ratio, for Rayleigh number from to and varying porosities , at a fixed Prandtl number , and we restrict ourselves to the two-dimensional case. For fixed , the Nusselt number is found to vary non-monotonically as a function of ; namely, with decreasing , it first increases, before it decreases for approaching 0. The non-monotonic behaviour of originates from two competing effects of the porous structure on the heat transfer. On the one hand, the flow coherence is enhanced in the porous media, which is beneficial for the heat transfer. On the other hand, the convection is slowed down by the enhanced resistance due to the porous structure, leading to heat transfer reduction. For fixed , depending on , two different heat transfer regimes are identified, with different effective power-law behaviours of versus , namely a steep one for low when viscosity dominates, and the standard classical one for large . The scaling crossover occurs when the thermal boundary layer thickness and the pore scale are comparable. The influences of the porous structure on the temperature and velocity fluctuations, convective heat flux and energy dissipation rates are analysed, further demonstrating the competing effects of the porous structure to enhance or reduce the heat transfer.
We report on a three-dimensional direct numerical simulation study of flow structure and heat transport in the annular centrifugal Rayleigh-Bdnard convection (ACRBC) system, with cold inner and hot outer cylinders corotating axially, for the Rayleigh number range Ra is an element of [10(6), 10(8)] and radius ratio range eta = R-i/R-o is an element of [0.3, 0.9] (R-i and R-o are the radius of the inner and outer cylinders, respectively). This study focuses on the dependence of flow dynamics, heat transport and asymmetric mean temperature fields on the radius ratio eta. For the inverse Rossby number Ro(-1) = 1, as the Coriolis force balances inertial force, the flow is in the inertial regime. The mechanisms of zonal flow revolving in the prograde direction in this regime are attributed to the asymmetric movements of plumes and the different curvatures of the cylinders. The number of roll pairs is smaller than the circular roll hypothesis as the convection rolls are probably elongated by zonal flow. The physical mechanism of zonal flow is verified by the dependence of the drift frequency of the large-scale circulation (LSC) rolls and the space- and time-averaged azimuthal velocity on eta. The larger eta is, the weaker the zonal flow becomes. We show that the heat transport efficiency increases with eta. It is also found that the bulk temperature deviates from the arithmetic mean temperature and the deviation increases as eta decreases. This effect can be explained by a simple model that accounts for the curvature effects and the radially dependent centrifugal force in ACRBC.
Shuning XiaUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaZhenhua WanUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaShuang LiuUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaQi WangUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaDejun SunUniversity of Science and Technology of China
Fluid Dynamics and Shock Wavesmathscidoc:2205.14003
Flow reversals in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection led by non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq (NOB) effects due to large temperature differences arc studied by direct numerical simulation. Perfect gas is chosen as the working fluid and the Prandtl number is 0.71 for the reference state. 11 NOB effects are included, the flow pattern P-11 with only one dominant roll often becomes unstable by the growth of the cold corner roll, which sometimes results in cession-led flow reversals. By exploiting the vorticity transport equation, it is found that the asymmetries of buoyancy and viscous forces are responsible for the growth of the cold corner roll because both such asymmetries cause an imbalance between the corner rolls and the large-scale circulation (I.SC). The buoyancy force near the cold wall increases and decreases near the hot wall originating from the temperature-dependent isobaric thermal expansion coefficient alpha = 1/T if NOB effects are included; Moreover, the decreased dissipation due to lower viscosity is favourable for the growth of the cold corner roll, while the increased viscosity further suppresses the growth of the hot corner roll. Finally, it is found that the boundary layer near the cold wall plays an important role in the mass transport from LSC to corner rolls subject to mass conservation.
Shuang LiuUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaBofu WangShanghai UniversityZhenhua WanUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaDongjun MaInstitute of Applied Physics and Computational MathematicsDejun SunUniversity of Science and Technology of China
Fluid Dynamics and Shock Wavesmathscidoc:2205.14002
For a fixed geometric configuration, hydrodynamic instabilities and bifurcation processes of laminar isothermal planar opposed jet flows with symmetric and slightly asymmetric inlet boundary conditions are investigated numerically using a high-resolution approach based on spectral element method. In current configuration, when inlet boundary conditions are symmetric, in the range of the Reynolds number considered (Re <= 200), multiple new symmetry-breaking bifurcations are observed and four new flow patterns are identified. Their hydrodynamic characteristics are analyzed, in particular their symmetries. In addition, the case that inlet boundary conditions are slightly asymmetric is investigated. It is found that bifurcation processes are extremely sensitive to this small symmetry-breaking imperfection and much different from those in the symmetric case. Furthermore, model equations are constructed by symmetry consideration to explain the numerical results based on hydrodynamic equations.
Chuanshi SunUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaShuang LiuUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaQi WangUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaZhenhua WanUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaDejun SunUniversity of Science and Technology of China
Fluid Dynamics and Shock Wavesmathscidoc:2205.14001
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics-English Edition, 40, 2019.5
The bifurcations of penetrative Rayleigh-Benard convection in cylindrical containers are studied by the linear stability analysis (LSA) combined with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) method. The working fluid is cold water near 4 degrees C, where the Prandtl number Pr is 11.57, and the aspect ratio (radius/height) of the cylinder ranges from 0.66 to 2. It is found that the critical Rayleigh number increases with the increase in the density inversion parameter (m). The relationship between the normalized critical Rayleigh number (Ra-c((m))/Ra-c(0)) and (m) is formulated, which is in good agreement with the stability results within a large range of (m). The aspect ratio has a minor effect on Ra-c((m))/Ra-c(0). The bifurcation processes based on the axisymmetric solutions are also investigated. The results show that the onset of axisymmetric convection occurs through a trans-critical bifurcation due to the top-bottom symmetry breaking of the present system. Moreover, two kinds of qualitatively different steady axisymmetric solutions are identified.
A key difficulty in the analysis and numerical approximation of the shallow water
equations is the nonconservative product of measures due to the gravitational force acting on a sloped
bottom. Solutions may be nonunique, and numerical schemes are not only consistent discretizations
of the shallow water equations, but they also determine how to model the physics. Our derivation is
based on a subcell reconstruction using infinitesimal singular layers at the cell boundaries, as inspired
by S. Noelle, Y. Xing, and C.-W. Shu [J. Comput. Phys., 226 (2007), pp. 29-58]. One key step
is to separate the singular measures. Another aspect is the reconstruction of the solution variables
in the singular layers. We study three reconstructions. The first leads to the well-known scheme of
Audusse et al., [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 25 (2004), pp. 2050-2065], which introduces the hydrostatic
reconstruction. The second is a modification proposed in [T. Morales de Luna, M. J. Castro D´ıaz,
and C. Par´es, Appl. Math. Comput., 219 (2013), pp. 9012-9032], which analyzes whether a wave
has enough energy to overcome a step. The third is our new scheme, which borrows its structure
from the wet-dry front. For a number of cases discussed in recent years, where water runs down a
hill, Audusse’s scheme converges slowly or fails. Morales’ scheme gives a visible improvement. Both
schemes are clearly outperformed by our new scheme.
In this paper, we are concerned with the motion of electrically conducting fluid governed by the two-dimensional non-isentropic viscous compressible MHD system on the half plane with no-slip condition on the velocity field, perfectly conducting wall condition on the magnetic field and Dirichlet boundary condition on the temperature on the boundary. When the viscosity, heat conductivity and magnetic diffusivity coefficients tend to zero in the same rate, there is a boundary layer which is described by a Prandtl-type system. Under the non-degeneracy condition on the tangential magnetic field instead of monotonicity of velocity, by applying a coordinate transformation in terms of the stream function of magnetic field as motivated by the recent work , we obtain the local-in-time well-posedness of the boundary layer system in weighted Sobolev spaces.
In this paper, we prove the global existence of solutions with analytic regularity to the 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer equations in the mixed Prandtl and Hartmann regime derived by formal multiscale expansion in [D. Gerard-Varet and M. Prestipino, <i>Z. Angew. Math. Phys.</i>, 68 (2017), 76]. The analysis shows that the combined effect of the magnetic diffusivity and transverse magnetic field on the boundary leads to a linear damping on the tangential velocity field near the boundary. And this damping effect yields the global-in-time analytic norm estimate in the tangential space variable on the perturbation of the classical steady Hartmann profile.
The paper aims to estimate the thickness of the boundary layer for the planar MHD system with vanishing shear viscosity . Under some conditions on the initial and boundary data, we show that the thickness is of the order | In |. Note that this estimate holds also for the Navier-Stokes system so that it extends the previous works even without the magnetic effect.
In this paper, we will survey some recent results on the study of the viscous and invisid compressible flow with vacuum. It is wellknown that the study on vacuum has significance in the investigation on some important physical phenomena. However, most of the important questions about vacuum are still open due to the singularities caused by vacuum which need new mathematical tools and techniques to handle.
In the long-time scale, we consider the fluid dynamical limits for the kinetic equations when the fluctuation is decomposed into even and odd parts with respect to the microscopic velocity with different scalings. It is shown that when the background state is an absolute Maxwellian, the limit fluid dynamical equations are the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with viscous heating. This is different from the case when the even and odd parts of the fluctuation have the same scaling where the standard incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without viscous heating are obtained. On the other hand, when the background is a local Maxwellian, it is shown that the above even-odd decomposition leads to a non-classical fluid dynamical system without viscous heating which has been used to describe the ghost effect in the kinetic theory. In addition, the above even-odd decomposition is justified rigorously for the Boltzmann equation for the former case when the background is an absolute Maxwellian.
In this survey paper, we will present the recent work on the study of the compressible fluids with vacuum states by illustrating its interesting and singular behavior through some systems of fluid dynamics, that is, Euler equations, EulerPoisson equations and NavierStokes equations. The main concern is the well-posedness of the problem when vacuum presents and the singular behavior of the solution near the interface separating the vacuum and the gas. Furthermore, the relation of the solutions for the gas dynamics with vacuum to those of the Boltzmann equation will also be discussed. In fact, the results obtained so far for vacuum states are far from being complete and satisfactory. Therefore, this paper can only be served as an introduction to this interesting field which has many open and challenging mathematical problems. Moreover, the problems considered here are limited to the author's interest and
We study homogenization of the G-equation with a flow straining term (or the strain G-equation) in two dimensional periodic cellular flow. The strain G-equation is a highly non-coercive and non-convex level set HamiltonJacobi equation. The main objective is to investigate how the flow induced straining (the nonconvex term) influences front propagation as the flow intensity <i>A</i> increases. Three distinct regimes are identified. When <i>A</i> is below the critical level, homogenization holds and the turbulent flame speed <i>s</i> <sub>T</sub> (effective Hamiltonian) is well-defined for any periodic flow with small divergence and is enhanced by the cellular flow as <i>s</i> <sub>T</sub> <i>O</i>(<i>A</i>/log <i>A</i>). In the second regime where <i>A</i> is slightly above the critical value, homogenization breaks down, and <i>s</i> <sub>T</sub> is not well-defined along any direction. Solutions become a mixture of a fast moving part and a stagnant part. When <i>A</i> is
We study wetting front (traveling wave) solutions to the Richards equation that describe the vertical infiltration of water through one-dimensional periodically layered unsaturated soils. We prove the existence, uniqueness, and large time asymptotic stability of the traveling wave solutions under prescribed flux boundary conditions and certain constitutive conditions. The traveling waves are connections between two steady state solutions that form near the ground surface and towards the underground water table. We found a closed form expression of the wave speed. The speed of a traveling wave is equal to the ratio of the flux difference and the difference of the spatial averages of the two steady states. We give both analytical and numerical examples showing that the wave speeds in the periodic soils can be larger or smaller than those in the homogeneous soils which have the same mean diffusivity and conductivity