Pierre DegondDepartment of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UKSara Merino-AceitunoDepartment of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK; Faculty of Mathematics, University of Vienna, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090, Vienna, Austria; Department of Mathematics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9RH, UKFabien VergnetLaboratoire de mathématiques d’Orsay (LMO), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, Universit Paris-Saclay, 15 rue Georges Clémenceau, 91405, Orsay Cedex, FranceHui YuInstitut für Geometrie und Praktische Mathematik, RWTH Aachen University, 52062, Aachen, Germany; Mathematical Sciences Center, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing, 100084, China
Fluid Dynamics and Shock Wavesmathscidoc:2205.14015
Journal of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics, 21, (6), 2019.1
We derive macroscopic dynamics for self-propelled particles in a fluid. The starting point is a coupled Vicsek–Stokes system. The Vicsek model describes self-propelled agents interacting through alignment. It provides a phenomenological description of hydrodynamic interactions between agents at high density. Stokes equations describe a low Reynolds number fluid. These two dynamics are coupled by the interaction between the agents and the fluid. The fluid contributes to rotating the particles through Jeffery’s equation. Particle self-propulsion induces a force dipole on the fluid. After coarse-graining we obtain a coupled Self-Organised Hydrodynamics–Stokes system. We perform a linear stability analysis for this system which shows that both pullers and pushers have unstable modes. We conclude by providing extensions of the Vicsek–Stokes model including short-distance repulsion, finite particle inertia and finite Reynolds number fluid regime.
We analyze the power spectra and structure functions (SFs) of the temperature and radial velocity fields, calculated in the radial and azimuthal directions, in annular centrifugal Rayleigh–Bénard convection (ACRBC) for Rayleigh number Ra ∈[108,1011], Prandtl number Pr = 10.7, and inverse Rossby number Ro−1=16 using the spatial data obtained by quasi-two-dimensional direct numerical simulation. Bolgiano and Obukhov-like (BO59-like) scalings for the energy spectrum in both the azimuthal and radial directions and thermal spectrum in the azimuthal direction are observed. The range of BO59-like scaling becomes wider as Ra increases. At Ra=1011, it is found that BO59-like scaling Eu(kr)∼kr−11/5 spans nearly two decades for the energy spectrum calculated in the radial direction. Power-law fittings in the range larger than the Bolgiano scales, the scaling exponents of transverse and longitudinal velocity SFs vs the order coincide with the theoretical prediction of BO59 scaling ζ u p =3p/5 basically. The second-order temperature SFs exhibit a gradual transition from the Obukhov–Corrsin behavior at scales smaller than the Bolgiano scales to the BO59 behavior at scales larger than the Bolgiano scales. The slopes from the third to sixth-order temperature SFs are similar, which is similar to classical Rayleigh–Bénard convection and Rayleigh–Taylor turbulence. The probability density functions (p.d.f.) of temperature fluctuations δT/σT reveal the cold plumes are strong and the p.d.f. in different regions at high Ra are similar. The stronger turbulent-mixing and larger centrifugal buoyancy in ACRBC may result in the BO59-like scaling.
We successfully perform the three-dimensional tracking in a turbulent fluid flow of small axisymmetrical particles that are neutrally-buoyant and bottom-heavy, i.e., they have a non-homogeneous mass distribution along their symmetry axis. We experimentally show how a tiny mass inhomogeneity can affect the particle orientation along the preferred vertical direction and modify its tumbling rate. The experiment is complemented by a series of simulations based on realistic Navier-Stokes turbulence and on a point-like particle model that is capable to explore the full range of parameter space characterized by the gravitational torque stability number and by the particle aspect ratio. We propose a theoretical perturbative prediction valid in the high bottom-heaviness regime that agrees well with the observed preferential orientation and tumbling rate of the particles. We also show that the heavy-tail shape of the probability distribution function of the tumbling rate is weakly affected by the bottom-heaviness of the particles.