We consider a Chern–Simons theory of planar matter fields interacting with the Chern–Simons gauge field in a SU(N)_global ⊗ U(1)_local invariant fashion. We classify the radially symmetric soliton solutions of the system in terms of the prescribed value of magnetic flux associated with this model. We also prove the uniqueness of the topological solution in a certain condition
Chia-Chen ChangUniversity of California, DavisSergiy GogolenkoUniversity of California, DavisJeffrey PerezUniversity of California, DavisZhaojun BaiUniversity of California, DavisRichard T. ScalettarUniversity of California, Davis
We apply the geometric-topology surgery theory on the spacetime manifold to study the constraints of quantum statistics data in 2+1 and 3+1 spacetime dimensions. First we introduce the fusion data for worldline and worldsheet operators capable creating anyon excitations of particles and strings, well-defined in gapped states of matter with intrinsic topological orders. Second we introduce the braiding statistics data of particles and strings, such as the geometric Berry matrices for particle-string Aharonov-Bohm and multi-loop adiabatic braiding process, encoded by submanifold linkings, in the closed spacetime 3-manifolds and 4-manifolds. Third we derive new "quantum surgery" constraints analogous to Verlinde formula associating fusion and braiding statistics data via spacetime surgery, essential for defining the theory of topological orders, and potentially correlated to bootstrap boundary physics such as gapless modes, conformal field theories or quantum anomalies.
The challenge of identifying symmetry-protected topological states (SPTs) is due to their lack of symmetry-breaking order parameters and intrinsic topological orders. For this reason, it is impossible to formulate SPTs under Ginzburg-Landau theory or probe SPTs via fractionalized bulk excitations and topology-dependent ground state degeneracy. However, the partition functions from path integrals with various symmetry twists are the universal SPT invariants defining topological probe responses, fully characterizing SPTs. In this work, we use gauge fields to represent those symmetry twists in closed spacetimes of any dimensionality and arbitrary topology. This allows us to express the SPT invariants in terms of continuum field theory. We show that SPT invariants of pure gauge actions describe the SPTs predicted by group cohomology, while the mixed gauge-gravity actions describe the beyond-group-cohomology SPTs, recently observed by Kapustin. We find new examples of mixed gauge-gravity actions for U(1) SPTs in 4+1D via mixing the gauge first Chern class with a gravitational Chern-Simons term, or viewed as a 5+1D Wess-Zumino-Witten term with a Pontryagin class. We rule out U(1) SPTs in 3+1D mixed with a Stiefel-Whitney class. We also apply our approach to the bosonic/fermionic topological insulators protected by U(1) charge and Z_2^T time-reversal symmetries whose pure gauge action is the axion θ-term. Field theory representations of SPT invariants not only serve as tools for classifying SPTs, but also guide us in designing physical probes for them. In addition, our field theory representations are independently powerful for studying group cohomology within the mathematical context.
In this paper, we construct the bilinear identities for the wave functions of an extended B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (BKP) hierarchy, which contains two types of (2+1)-dimensional Sawada-Kotera equation with a self-consistent source (2d-SKwS-I and 2d-SKwS-II). By introducing an auxiliary variable corresponding to the extended flow for the BKP hierarchy, we find the tau-function and the bilinear identities for this extended BKP hierarchy. The bilinear identities can generate all the Hirota's bilinear equations for the zero-curvature forms of this extended BKP hierarchy. As examples, the Hirota's bilinear equations for the two types of 2d-SKwS (both 2d-SKwS-I and 2d-SKwS-II) will be given explicitly.
When two topologically identical shapes are blended, various possible transformation paths exist from the source shape to the
target shape. Which one is the most plausible? Here we propose that the transformation process should obey a quasi-physical
law. This paper combines morphing with deformation theory from continuum mechanics. By using strain energy, which reflects
the magnitude of deformation, as an objective function, we convert the problem of path interpolation into an unconstrained
optimization problem. To reduce the number of variables in the optimization we adopt shape functions, as used in the finite
element method (FEM). A point-to-point correspondence between the source and target shapes is naturally established using
these polynomial functions plus a distance map.
Strain fields provide a method of deformation measurement based on physics. Using these as a tool, we can analyze deformation of objects in a measurable way. We have developed a new morphing technique based on strain field interpolation. Shape shaking and squeezing, which often happen when using linear interpolation for morphing, do not arise in our approach. We have also developed a new method to create isomorphic meshes from corresponding objects in two images. Meshes generated by this method have much fewer triangles than other methods, which greatly decreases calculation loads in the morphing process.