Three dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant -1/\ell^2 deformed by a gravitational Chern-Simons action with coefficient 1/\mu is studied in an asymptotically AdS_3 spacetime. It is argued to violate unitary or positivity for generic \mu due to negative-energy massive gravitons. However at the critical value \mu\ell=1, the massive gravitons disappear and BTZ black holes all have mass and angular momentum related by \ell M=J. The corresponding chiral quantum theory of gravity is conjectured to exist and be dual to a purely right-moving boundary CFT with central charges (c_L,c_R)=(0,3\ell /G).
We prove a sharp inequality for hypersurfaces in the ndimensional Anti-deSitter-Schwarzschild manifold for general $n \ge 3$. This inequality generalizes the classical Minkowski inequality  for surfaces in the three dimensional Euclidean space. The proof relies on a new monotonicity formula for inverse mean curvature flow, and uses a geometric inequality established in .
Markus Ihmsen · Jens Cornelis · Barbara Solenthaler · Christopher J Horvath · Matthias Teschner. Implicit Incompressible SPH. 2014.
Lentine M, Zheng W, Fedkiw R, et al. A novel algorithm for incompressible flow using only a coarse grid projection[J]. international conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, 2010, 29(4).
Zhu B, Yang X, Fan Y, et al. Creating and Preserving Vortical Details in SPH Fluid[J]. Computer Graphics Forum, 2010, 29(7): 2207-2214.
Chenfanfu Jiang · Craig Schroeder · Andrew Selle · Joseph Teran · Alexey Stomakhin. The affine particle-in-cell method. 2015.
Chang Y, Bao K, Zhu J, et al. A particle-based method for granular flow simulation[J]. Science in China Series F: Information Sciences, 2012, 55(5): 1062-1072.
Cornelis J, Ihmsen M, Peer A, et al. IISPH-FLIP for incompressible fluids[J]. Computer Graphics Forum, 2014, 33(2): 255-262.
Yusuke Tsuda · Yonghao Yue · Yoshinori Dobashi · Tomoyuki Nishita. Visual simulation of mixed-motion avalanches with interactions between snow layers. 2010.
Ren B, Yan X, Yang T, et al. Fast SPH simulation for gaseous fluids[J]. The Visual Computer, 2016, 32(4): 523-534.
Suntae Kim · Jeongmo Hong. Visual simulation of turbulent fluids using MLS interpolation profiles. 2013.
Shiguang Liu · Yixin Xu · Junyong Noh · Yiying Tong. Visual fluid animation via lifting wavelet transform: Fluid animation via lifting wavelet transform. 2014.
Gaseous fluids may move slowly, as smoke does, or at high speed, such as occurs with explosions. High-speed gas flow is always accompanied by low-speed gas flow, which produces rich visual details in the fluid motion. Realistic visualization involves a complex dynamic flow field with both low and high speed fluid behavior. In computer graphics, algorithms to simulate gaseous fluids address either the low speed case or the high speed case, but no algorithm handles both efficiently. With the aim of providing visually pleasing results, we present a hybrid algorithm that efficiently captures the essential physics of both low- and high-speed gaseous fluids. We model the low speed gaseous fluids by a grid approach and use a particle approach for the high speed gaseous fluids. In addition, we propose a physically sound method to connect the particle model to the grid model. By exploiting complementary strengths and avoiding weaknesses of the grid and particle approaches, we produce some animation examples and analyze their computational performance to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new hybrid method.
We give a new type of Schur-Weyl duality for the representations of a family of quantum subgroups and their centralizer algebra. We define and classify singly-generated, Yang-Baxter relation planar algebras. We present the skein theoretic construction of a new parameterized planar algebra. We construct infinitely many new subfactors and unitary fusion categories, and compute their trace formula as a closed-form expression, in terms of Young diagrams.
We introduce a web of strongly correlated interacting 3+1D topological superconductors/ insulators
of 10 particular global symmetry groups of Cartan classes, realizable in electronic condensed matter systems, and
their generalizations. The symmetries include SU(N), SU(2), U(1), fermion parity, time reversal and
relate to each other through symmetry embeddings. We overview the lattice Hamiltonian formalism.
We complete the list of bulk symmetry-protected topological invariants
(SPT invariants/partition functions that exhibit boundary 't Hooft
anomalies) via cobordism calculations, matching their full classification.
We also present explicit 4-manifolds that detect these SPTs.
On the other hand, once we dynamically gauge part of their global symmetries, we arrive in various new phases of $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills (YM) theories,
realizable as quantum spin liquids with emergent gauge fields.
We discuss how coupling YM theories to time reversal-SPTs affects the strongly coupled theories at low energy.
For example, we point out
a possibility of having two deconfined gapless time-reversal symmetric
$SU(2)$ YM theories at $\theta=\pi$ as two distinct conformal field theories,
which although are secretly indistinguishable by gapped SPT states nor by correlators of local operators on oriented spacetimes, can be distinguished on non-orientable spacetimes or potentially by correlators of extended operators.
The challenge of identifying symmetry-protected topological states (SPTs) is due to their lack of symmetry-breaking order parameters and intrinsic topological orders. For this reason, it is impossible to formulate SPTs under Ginzburg-Landau theory or probe SPTs via fractionalized bulk excitations and topology-dependent ground state degeneracy. However, the partition functions from path integrals with various symmetry twists are the universal SPT invariants defining topological probe responses, fully characterizing SPTs. In this work, we use gauge fields to represent those symmetry twists in closed spacetimes of any dimensionality and arbitrary topology. This allows us to express the SPT invariants in terms of continuum field theory. We show that SPT invariants of pure gauge actions describe the SPTs predicted by group cohomology, while the mixed gauge-gravity actions describe the beyond-group-cohomology SPTs, recently observed by Kapustin. We find new examples of mixed gauge-gravity actions for U(1) SPTs in 4+1D via mixing the gauge first Chern class with a gravitational Chern-Simons term, or viewed as a 5+1D Wess-Zumino-Witten term with a Pontryagin class. We rule out U(1) SPTs in 3+1D mixed with a Stiefel-Whitney class. We also apply our approach to the bosonic/fermionic topological insulators protected by U(1) charge and Z_2^T time-reversal symmetries whose pure gauge action is the axion θ-term. Field theory representations of SPT invariants not only serve as tools for classifying SPTs, but also guide us in designing physical probes for them. In addition, our field theory representations are independently powerful for studying group cohomology within the mathematical context.
The classical Minkowski formula is extended to spacelike codimension-two submanifolds in spacetimes which admit "hidden symmetry" from conformal Killing-Yano two-forms. As an application, we obtain an Alexandrov type theorem for spacelike codimension-two submanifolds in a static spherically symmetric spacetime: a codimension-two submanifold with constant normalized null expansion (null mean curvature) must lie in a shear-free (umbilical) null hypersurface. These results are generalized for higher order curvature invariants. In particular, the notion of mixed higher order mean curvature is introduced to highlight the special null geometry of the submanifold. Finally, Alexandrov type theorems are established for spacelike submanifolds with constant mixed higher order mean curvature, which are generalizations of hypersurfaces of constant Weingarten curvature in the Euclidean space.
We define quasi-local conserved quantities in general relativity by using the optimal isometric embedding in Wang and Yau (Commun Math Phys 288(3):919–942, 2009) to transplant Killing fields in the Minkowski spacetime back to the 2-surface of interest in a physical spacetime. To each optimal isometric embedding, a dual element of the Lie algebra of the Lorentz group is assigned. Quasi-local angular momentum and quasi-local center of mass correspond to pairing this element with rotation Killing fields and boost Killing fields, respectively. They obey classical transformation laws under the action of the Poincaré group. We further justify these definitions by considering their limits as the total angular momentum and the total center of mass of an isolated system. These expressions were derived from the Hamilton–Jacobi analysis of the gravitational action and thus satisfy conservation laws. As a result, we obtained an invariant total angular momentum theorem in the Kerr spacetime. For a vacuum asymptotically flat initial data set of order 1, it is shown that the limits are always finite without any extra assumptions. We also study these total conserved quantities on a family of asymptotically flat initial data sets evolving by the vacuum Einstein evolution equation. It is shown that the total angular momentum is conserved under the evolution. For the total center of mass, the classical dynamical formula relating the center of mass, energy, and linear momentum is recovered, in the nonlinear context of initial data sets evolving by the vacuum Einstein evolution equation. The definition of quasi-local angular momentum provides an answer to the second problem in classical general relativity on Penrose’s list (Proc R Soc Lond Ser A 381(1780):53–63, 1982).
We develop mathematical models describing the evolution of stochastic
age-structured populations. After reviewing existing approaches, we
formulate a complete kinetic framework for age-structured interacting
populations undergoing birth, death and fission processes in
spatially dependent environments. We define the full probability
density for the population-size age chart and find results under
specific conditions. Connections with more classical models are also
explicitly derived. In particular, we show that factorial moments for
non-interacting processes are described by a natural generalization of
the McKendrick-von Foerster equation, which describes mean-field
deterministic behavior. Our approach utilizes mixed-type,
multidimensional probability distributions similar to those employed
in the study of gas kinetics and with terms that satisfy BBGKY-like
We study the space of Killing fields on the four dimensional AdS spacetime AdS 3,1 . Two subsets S and O are identified: S (the spinor Killing fields) is constructed from imaginary Killing spinors, and O (the observer Killing fields) consists of all hypersurface orthogonal, future timelike unit Killing fields. When the cosmology constant vanishes, or in the Minkowski spacetime case, these two subsets have the same convex hull in the space of Killing fields. In presence of the cosmology constant, the convex hull of O is properly contained in that of S . This leads to two different notions of energy for an asymptotically AdS spacetime, the spinor energy and the observer energy. In , Chru\'sciel, Maerten and Tod proved the positivity of the spinor energy and derived important consequences among the related conserved quantities. We show that the positivity of the observer energy follows from the positivity of the spinor energy. A new notion called the "rest mass" of an asymptotically AdS spacetime is then defined by minimizing the observer energy, and is shown to be evaluated in terms of the adjoint representation of the Lie algebra of Killing fields. It is proved that the rest mass has the desirable rigidity property that characterizes the AdS spacetime.