Tsung-Ming HuangDepartment of Mathematics, National Taiwan Normal UniversityTiexiang LiSchool of Mathematics, Southeast UniversityWei-De LiDepartment of Mathematics, National Tsing-Hua UniversityJia-Wei LinDepartment of Applied Mathematics, National Chiao Tung UniversityWen-Wei LinDepartment of Applied Mathematics, National Chiao Tung UniversityTian HengDepartment of Applied Mathematics, National Chiao Tung University
Numerical Analysis and Scientific ComputingNumerical Linear Algebramathscidoc:1810.07001
Calculation of band structures of three dimensional photonic crystals amounts to solving large-scale Maxwell eigenvalue problems, which are notoriously challenging due to high multiplicity of zero eigenvalues. In this paper, we try to address this problem in such a broad context that band structures of three dimensional isotropic photonic crystals in all $14$ Bravais lattices can be efficiently computed in a unified framework. In this work, we uncover the delicate machinery behind several key results of our framework and on the basis of this new understanding we drastically simplify the derivations, proofs and arguments. Particular effort is made on reformulating the Bloch condition for all $14$ Bravais lattices in the redefined orthogonal coordinate system, and establishing eigen-decomposition of discrete partial derivative operators by identifying the hierarchical structure of the underlying normal (block) companion matrix, and reducing the eigen-decomposition of the double-curl operator to a simple factorization of a $3$-by-$3$ complex skew-symmetric matrix. With the validity of the novel nullspace free method in the broad context, we perform some calculations on one benchmark system to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our algorithm to solve Maxwell eigenvalue problems.
This article focuses on numerically studying the eigenstructure behavior of generalized eigenvalue problems (GEPs) arising in three dimensional (3D) source-free Maxwell's equations with magnetoelectric coupling effects which model 3D reciprocal chiral media. It is challenging to solve such a large-scale GEP efficiently. We combine the null-space free method with the inexact shift-invert residual Arnoldi method and MINRES linear solver to solve the GEP with a matrix dimension as large as 5,308,416. The eigenstructure is heavily determined by the chirality parameter $\gamma$. We show that all the eigenvalues are real and finite for a small chirality $\gamma$. For a critical value $\gamma = \gamma^*$, the GEP has $2 \times 2$ Jordan blocks at infinity eigenvalues. Numerical results demonstrate that when $\gamma$ increases from $\gamma^*$, the $2 \times 2$ Jordan block will first split into a complex conjugate eigenpair, then rapidly collide with the real axis and bifurcate into positive (resonance) and negative eigenvalues with modulus smaller than the other existing positive eigenvalues. The resonance band also exhibits an anticrossing interaction. Moreover, the electric and magnetic fields of the resonance modes are localized inside the structure, with only a slight amount of field leaking into the background (dielectric) material.
Manifold parameterizations have been applied to various fields of commercial industries. Several efficient algorithms for the computation of triangular surface mesh parameterizations have been proposed in recent years. However, the computation of tetrahedral volumetric mesh parameterizations is more challenging due to the fact that the number of mesh points would become enormously large when the higher resolution mesh is considered and the bijectivity of parameterizations is more difficult to guarantee. In this paper, we develop a novel volumetric stretch energy minimization algorithm for volume-preserving parameterizations of simply connected 3-manifolds with a single boundary under the restriction that the boundary is a spherical area-preserving mapping. In addition, our algorithm can also be applied to compute spherical angle- and area-preserving parameterizations of genus-zero closed surfaces, respectively. Several numerical experiments indicate that the developed algorithms are more efficient and reliable compared to other existing algorithms. Numerical results on applications of the manifold partition and the mesh processing for three-dimensional printing are demonstrated thereafter to show the robustness of the proposed algorithm.
The Lanczos method is often used to solve a large scale symmetric matrix eigenvalue problem. It is well-known that the single-vector Lanczos method can only find one copy of any multiple eigenvalue and encounters slow convergence towards clustered eigenvalues. On the other hand, the block Lanczos method can compute all or some of the copies of a multiple eigenvalue and, with a suitable block size, also compute clustered eigenvalues much faster. The existing convergence theory due to Saad for the block Lanczos method, however, does not fully reflect this phenomenon since the theory was established to bound approximation errors in each individual approximate eigenpairs. Here, it is argued that in the presence of an eigenvalue cluster,
the entire approximate eigenspace associated with the cluster should be considered as a whole, instead of each individual approximate eigenvectors, and likewise for approximating clusters of eigenvalues. In this paper, we obtain error bounds on approximating eigenspaces and eigenvalue clusters. Our bounds are much sharper than the existing ones and expose true rates of convergence of the block Lanczos method towards eigenvalue clusters. Furthermore, their sharpness is independent of
the closeness of eigenvalues within a cluster. Numerical examples are presented to support our claims.
The doubling algorithms are very efficient iterative methods for computing the unique minimal nonnegative solution to an M-matrix algebraic Riccati equation (MARE). They are globally and quadratically convergent, except for MARE in the critical case where convergence is linear with the linear rate 1/2. However, the initialization phase and the doubling iteration kernel of any doubling algorithm involve inverting nonsingular M-matrices. In particular, for MARE in the critical case, the M-matrices in
the doubling iteration kernel, although nonsingular, move towards singular M-matrices at convergence. These inversions are causes of concerns on entrywise relative accuracy of the eventually computed minimal nonnegative solution. Fortunately, a nonsingular M-matrix can be inverted by the GTH-like algorithm of Alfa, Xue, and Ye [Math. Comp., 71:217--236, 2002] to almost full entrywise relative accuracy, provided a triplet representation of the matrix is known. Recently, Nguyen and Poloni [Numer. Math., 130(4):763--792, 2015] discovered a way to construct triplet representations in a cancellation-free manner for all involved M-matrices in the doubling iteration kernel, for a special class of MAREs arising from Markov-modulated fluid queues. In this paper, we extend Nguyen's and Poloni's work to all MAREs by also devising a way to construct the triplet representations cancellation-free. Our construction, however, is not a straightforward extension of theirs. It is made possible by
an introduction of novel recursively computable auxiliary nonnegative vectors. As the second contribution, we propose an entrywise relative residual for an approximate solution. The residual has an appealing feature of being able to reveal the entrywise relative accuracies of all entries, large and small, of the approximation. This is in marked contrast to the usual legacy normalized residual which reflects relative accuracies of large entries well but not so much those of very tiny entries. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate and confirm our claims.