In this paper, we give a complete classification of cotorsion pairs in a cluster category C of type A^\infty_\infty via certain configurations of arcs, called τ-compact Ptolemy diagrams, in an infinite strip with marked points. As applications, we classify t-structures and functorially finite rigid subcategories in C, respectively. We also deduce Liu-Paquette's classification of cluster tilting subcategories of C and Ng's classification of torsion pairs in the cluster category of type A^\infty_\infty.