An order 3 magic hexagon resembles the shape of a 19-cell honeycomb, arranged in a 3 4 5 4 3 manner. The requirement is to fill the numbers 1-19 in the grids so that each row (15 in total) adds up to 38.
Previously invented methods aimed at solving this problem and proving its uniqueness were either not rigorous enough or too intricate. So by analyzing its properties, I wanted to find a combinatorial solution to its construction, prove its uniqueness, and investigate whether its mathematical principles can be used in real-world applications. The difficulty depends on the viewpoint, so the first step was to label each grid in a convenient way. I chose to look at the magic hexagon as a network composed of a center and rings. Then the connections and restrictions of each number set could be found by formula
derivation. In a similar fashion, symmetrical properties were also found. The next step was to analyze possible distributions of odd and even numbers. Out of the 9 configurations, only 1 proved to be usable. The final step was construction. With all the properties known, the few impossibilities were easily eliminated, and only one solution remained, thus proving its uniqueness.
The procedures used on the order 3 magic hexagon may be extended to those of higher orders, providing more ease in their construction. The unique properties of magic hexagons may be used in some fields of application, such as in password systems, large-scale roof structure, composite material, national security systems and many other fields.
Pell equation is an important research object in elementary number theory of indefinite equation. its form is simple, but it is rich in nature. Many number theory problems can be transformed into the problem of Pell equation’s solvability. However, the previous methods in determining the Pell equation’s solvability are sophisticated for calculation, which leads to the lack of efficiency. This paper gives new and more widely used methods to determine the solvability of Pell equation, including several necessary conditions, sufficient conditions and necessary and sufficient conditions.
Options is an important part of global financial market，with great influence on national economies. While most classic option pricing models are based on the assumption of a constant interest rate, economic data show that interest rates in reality frequently fluctuated under the influence of varying economic performances and monetary policies. As interest rate fluctuation is closely related to the value and expected return of options, it is worth discussing option pricing under stochastic interest
rate models. Since 1990s, scholars home and abroad have been conducting researches on this topic and have formulated price formulas for some types of options. However, because the pricing process involves two stochastic variables, the majority of previous studies employed sophisticated methods. As a result, their price formulas were too complicated to provide straightforward explanations of the parameters’ influence on option prices, unable to offer investors direct assistance.
This paper selects Vasicek interest rate model to describe interest rate’s stochastic movement, and discusses the pricing of European equity options whose underlying asset’s price follows Geometric Brownian Motions in a complete market. The paper’s value and innovation lie in the following aspects: ① It improves and simplifies the pricing methods for options under stochastic interest rate models, applies comparatively primary mathematical methods, and attains concise price formulas; ② it
52 conducts in-depth analysis of major parameters’ financial significance, which helps investors to make better investment decisions by estimating the variations in option prices corresponding to different parameters.
As the barcode becomes more widely used, its applications and data capacity demands grow,
increasing the need for barcodes with greater data density. Utilizing the quick response (QR)
code–one of the many types of barcodes–we developed two algorithms. The first algorithm
creates a color QR code that stores more information than a standard QR code and embeds extra
data with limited access privilege. The second algorithm denoises a noisy color QR code. These
algorithms consist of three techniques: (1) enlarging the data capacity of a compact QR code
image by stacking multiple classical QR codes to form a color barcode, (2) embedding
information into the color QR code using pseudo quantum signals in an M-band wavelet domain
and selecting the discrete 4-band wavelet transforms to compress the QR images, and (3)
applying Discrete M-band Wavelet Transform (DMWT) and Patch Group Prior based Denoising
(PGPD) methods to denoise noisy QR code images. The peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR)
summary indicates that information in a color QR code can be efficiently stored and retrieved
with these methods. Moreover, it shows that our denoising algorithm effectively removes heavy
noise from the noisy color QR code. Our algorithms are implemented in a flexible framework,
which allows for further modifications to improve both the data capacity of a color QR code and
the effectiveness of signal extraction from noisy data to meet future demands.