In this paper, we present a new adaptive feature scaling scheme for ultrahigh-dimensional feature selection on Big Data, and then reformulate it as a convex semi-infinite programming (SIP) problem. To address the SIP, we propose an efficient feature generating paradigm. Different from traditional gradient-based approaches that conduct optimization on all input features, the proposed paradigm iteratively activates a group of features, and solves a sequence of multiple kernel learning (MKL) subproblems. To further speed up the training, we propose to solve the MKL subproblems in their primal forms through a modified accelerated proximal gradient approach. Due to such optimization scheme, some efficient cache techniques are also developed. The feature generating paradigm is guaranteed to converge globally under mild conditions, and can achieve lower feature selection bias. Moreover, the proposed method can tackle two challenging tasks in feature selection: 1) group-based feature selection with complex structures, and 2) nonlinear feature selection with explicit feature mappings. Comprehensive experiments on a wide range of synthetic and real-world data sets of tens of million data points with O(10^14) features demonstrate the competitive performance of the proposed method over state-of-the-art feature selection methods in terms of generalization performance and training efficiency.
In this paper, we aim at developing scalable neural network-type learning systems. Motivated by the idea of constructive neural networks in approximation theory, we focus on constructing rather than training feed-forward neural networks (FNNs) for learning, and propose a novel FNNs learning system called the constructive FNN (CFN). Theoretically, we prove that the proposed method not only overcomes the classical saturation problem for constructive FNN approximation, but also reaches the optimal learning rate when the regression function is smooth, while the state-of-the-art learning rates established for traditional FNNs are only near optimal (up to a logarithmic factor). A series of numerical simulations are provided to show the efficiency and feasibility of CFN.
Personal videos often contain visual distractors, which are objects that are accidentally captured that can distract viewers from focusing on the main subjects. We propose a method to automatically detect and localize these distractors through learning from a manually labeled dataset. To achieve spatially and temporally coherent detection, we propose extracting features at the Temporal-Superpixel (TSP) level using a traditional SVM-based learning framework. We also experiment with end-to-end learning using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), which achieves slightly higher performance than other methods. The classification result is further refined in a post-processing step based on graph-cut optimization. Experimental results show that our method achieves an accuracy of 81% and a recall of 86%. We demonstrate several ways of removing the detected distractors to improve the video quality, including video hole filling; video frame replacement; and camera path re-planning. The user study results show that our method can significantly improve the aesthetic quality of videos.
We propose an effective framework for multi-phase image segmentation and semi-supervised data clustering by introducing a novel region force term into the Potts model. Assume the probability that a pixel or a data point belongs to each class is known a priori. We show that the corresponding indicator function obeys the Bernoulli distribution and the new region force function can be computed as the negative log-likelihood function under the Bernoulli distribution. We solve the Potts model by the primal-dual hybrid gradient method and the augmented Lagrangian method, which are based on two different dual problems of the same primal problem. Empirical evaluations of the Potts model with the new region force function on benchmark problems show that it is competitive with existing variational methods in both image segmentation and semi- supervised data clustering.