Three-dimensional data merging is vital for full-field three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement. All 3D range data patches, acquired from either different sensors or the same sensor in different viewing angles, have to be merged into a single piece to facilitate future data analysis. A novel method for 3D data merging using Holoimage is proposed. Similar to the 3D shape measurement system using a phase-shifting method, Holoimage is a phase-shiftingbased computer synthesized fringe image. The 3D information is retrieved from Holoimage using a phase-shifting method. If two patches of 3D data with overlapping areas are rendered by OpenGL, the overlapping areas are resolved by the graphics pipeline, that is, only the front geometry can be visualized. Therefore, the merging is performed if the front geometry information can be obtained. Holoimage is to obtain the front geometry by projecting the fringe
One great challenge of genomic research is to efficiently and accurately identify complex gene regulatory networks. The development of high-throughput technologies provides numerous experimental data such as DNA sequences, protein sequence, and RNA expression profiles makes it possible to study interactions and regulations among genes or other substance in an organism. However, it is crucial to make inference of genetic regulatory networks from gene expression profiles and protein interaction data for systems biology. This study will develop a new approach to reconstruct time delay Boolean networks as a tool for exploring biological pathways. In the inference strategy, we will compare all pairs of input genes in those basic relationships by their corresponding -scores for every output gene. Then, we will combine those consistent relationships to reveal the most probable relationship and reconstruct the genetic network. Specifically, we will prove that state transition pairs are sufficient and necessary to reconstruct the time delay Boolean network of nodes with high accuracy if the number of input genes to each gene is bounded. We also have implemented this method on simulated and empirical yeast gene expression data sets. The test results show that this proposed method is extensible for realistic networks.
This book presents an overview of recent developments in biostatistics and bioinformatics. Written by active researchers in these emerging areas, it is intended to give graduate students and new researchers an idea of where the frontiers of biostatistics and bioinformatics are as well as a forum to learn common techniques in use, so that they can advance the fields via developing new techniques and new results. Extensive references are provided so that researchers can follow the threads to learn more comprehensively what the literature is and to conduct their own research. In particulars, the book covers three important and rapidly advancing topics in biostatistics: analysis of survival and longitudinal data, statistical methods for epidemiology, and bioinformatics.
Estimation of genewise variance arises from two important applications in microarray data analysis: selecting significantly differentially expressed genes and validation tests for normalization of microarray data. We approach the problem by introducing a two-way nonparametric model, which is an extension of the famous Neyman-Scott model and is applicable beyond microarray data. The problem itself poses interesting challenges because the number of nuisance parameters is proportional to the sample size and it is not obvious how the variance function can be estimated when measurements are correlated. In such a high-dimensional nonparametric problem, we proposed two novel nonparametric estimators for genewise variance function and semiparametric estimators for measurement correlation, via solving a system of nonlinear equations. Their asymptotic normality is established. The finite sample property is
It has been reported that the plasma levels of VEGF in tumor patients decreased during dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our current report demonstrates that VEGF levels were significantly decreased in the supernatants of DCs incubated with rhVEGF or tumor conditioned medium (TCM) while the intracellular VEGF in DCs was increased. The increased intracellular VEGF was not due to the <i>de novo</i> VEGF synthesis by DCs because exogenous VEGF inhibited the mRNA expression of VEGF in DCs. More direct evidence was provided to demonstrate that Cy3-labeled VEGF could be internalized by DCs specifically and efficiently. In addition, the activity of DCs to internalize VEGF was abolished by neutralizing antibody against VEGF receptor-1 (Flt-1) and inhibitors of endocytosis such as carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) and genistein. This
In an event-related functional MRI data analysis, an accurate and robust extraction of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) and its associated statistics (e.g., magnitude, width, and time to peak) is critical to infer quantitative information about the relative timing of the neuronal events in different brain regions. The aim of this paper is to develop a multiscale adaptive smoothing model (MASM) to accurately estimate HRFs pertaining to each stimulus sequence across all voxels. MASM explicitly accounts for both spatial and temporal smoothness information, while incorporating such information to adaptively estimate HRFs in the frequency domain. One simulation study and a real data set are used to demonstrate the methodology and examine its finite sample performance in HRF estimation, which confirms that MASM significantly outperforms the existing methods including the smooth finite impulse
Tumor growth and metastasis require that tumor cells must have either the potential to shift genetically or epigenetically between proliferative and invasive phenotypes or both phenotypes simultaneously. In the present study, we demonstrated that neuroblastoma growth and invasion were distinct processes that were carried out by proliferative and invasive phenotypes of tumor cells, respectively. Two subpopulations from human neuroblastoma cell line were isolated: highly invasive (HI) cells and low-invasive (LI) cells. HI and LI cells had different proliferative rate and metastatic ability <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> . In addition, they had distinct activated signal pathways and sensitivities to chemotherapy drugs. Affymetrix microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction revealed that visinin-like protein-1 (VSNL-1) mRNA in HI cells was significantly higher than
Stem cell therapies have had tremendous potential application for many diseases in recent years. However, the tumorigeneic properties of stem cells restrict their potential clinical application; therefore, strategies for reducing the tumorigenic potential of stem cells must be established prior to transplantation. We have demonstrated that syngeneic transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provokes an inflammatory response that involves the rapid recruitment of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). ESCs are able to prevent mature macrophages from macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) withdrawal-induced apoptosis, and thus prolong macrophage lifespan significantly by blocking various apoptotic pathways in an M-CSF-independent manner. ESCs express and secrete IL-34 which may be responsible for ESC-promoted macrophage survival. This anti-apoptotic effect of ESCs involves activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways and thus, inhibition of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT activation decreases ESC-induced macrophage survival. Functionally, ESC-treated macrophages also showed a higher level of phagocytic activity. ESCs further serve to polarize BMDMs into M2-like macrophages that exhibit most tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) phenotypic and functional features. ESC-educated macrophages produce high levels of arginase-1, Tie-2 and TNF-, which participate in angiogenesis and contribute to teratoma progression. Our study suggests that induction of M2-like macrophage activation is an important mechanism for teratoma development. Strategies targeting macrophages to
<b>Motivation:</b> Normalization of microarray data is essential for multiple-array analyses. Several normalization protocols have been proposed based on different biological or statistical assumptions. A fundamental problem arises whether they have effectively normalized arrays. In addition, for a given array, the question arises how to choose a method to most effectively normalize the microarray data.
Macrophages play an important role in the inflammatory responses involved with spinal cord injury (SCI). We have previously demonstrated that infiltrated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) engulf myelin debris, forming myelin-laden macrophages (mye-M). These mye-M promote disease progression through their pro-inflammatory phenotype, enhanced neurotoxicity, and impaired phagocytic capacity for apoptotic cells. We thus hypothesize that the excessive accumulation of mye-M is the root of secondary injury, and that targeting mye-M represents an efficient strategy to improve the local inflammatory microenvironment in injured spinal cords and to further motor neuron function recovery. In this study, we administer murine embryonic stem cell conditioned media (ESC-M) as a cell-free stem cell based therapy to treat a mouse model of SCI. We showed that BMDMs, but not microglial cells, engulf myelin debris generated at the injury site. Phagocytosis of myelin debris leads to the formation of mye-M in the injured spinal cord, which are surrounded by activated microglia cells. These mye-M are pro-inflammatory and lose the normal macrophage phagocytic capacity for apoptotic cells. We therefore focus on how to trigger lipid efflux from mye-M and thus restore their function. Using ESC-M as an immune modulating treatment for inflammatory damage after SCI, we rescued mye-M function and improved functional locomotor recovery. ESC-M treatment on mye-M resulted in improved exocytosis of internalized lipids and a normal capacity for apoptotic cell phagocytosis. Furthermore, when ESC-M was administered