In an event-related functional MRI data analysis, an accurate and robust extraction of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) and its associated statistics (e.g., magnitude, width, and time to peak) is critical to infer quantitative information about the relative timing of the neuronal events in different brain regions. The aim of this paper is to develop a multiscale adaptive smoothing model (MASM) to accurately estimate HRFs pertaining to each stimulus sequence across all voxels. MASM explicitly accounts for both spatial and temporal smoothness information, while incorporating such information to adaptively estimate HRFs in the frequency domain. One simulation study and a real data set are used to demonstrate the methodology and examine its finite sample performance in HRF estimation, which confirms that MASM significantly outperforms the existing methods including the smooth finite impulse
Tumor growth and metastasis require that tumor cells must have either the potential to shift genetically or epigenetically between proliferative and invasive phenotypes or both phenotypes simultaneously. In the present study, we demonstrated that neuroblastoma growth and invasion were distinct processes that were carried out by proliferative and invasive phenotypes of tumor cells, respectively. Two subpopulations from human neuroblastoma cell line were isolated: highly invasive (HI) cells and low-invasive (LI) cells. HI and LI cells had different proliferative rate and metastatic ability <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> . In addition, they had distinct activated signal pathways and sensitivities to chemotherapy drugs. Affymetrix microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction revealed that visinin-like protein-1 (VSNL-1) mRNA in HI cells was significantly higher than
Stem cell therapies have had tremendous potential application for many diseases in recent years. However, the tumorigeneic properties of stem cells restrict their potential clinical application; therefore, strategies for reducing the tumorigenic potential of stem cells must be established prior to transplantation. We have demonstrated that syngeneic transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provokes an inflammatory response that involves the rapid recruitment of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). ESCs are able to prevent mature macrophages from macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) withdrawal-induced apoptosis, and thus prolong macrophage lifespan significantly by blocking various apoptotic pathways in an M-CSF-independent manner. ESCs express and secrete IL-34 which may be responsible for ESC-promoted macrophage survival. This anti-apoptotic effect of ESCs involves activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways and thus, inhibition of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT activation decreases ESC-induced macrophage survival. Functionally, ESC-treated macrophages also showed a higher level of phagocytic activity. ESCs further serve to polarize BMDMs into M2-like macrophages that exhibit most tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) phenotypic and functional features. ESC-educated macrophages produce high levels of arginase-1, Tie-2 and TNF-, which participate in angiogenesis and contribute to teratoma progression. Our study suggests that induction of M2-like macrophage activation is an important mechanism for teratoma development. Strategies targeting macrophages to
<b>Motivation:</b> Normalization of microarray data is essential for multiple-array analyses. Several normalization protocols have been proposed based on different biological or statistical assumptions. A fundamental problem arises whether they have effectively normalized arrays. In addition, for a given array, the question arises how to choose a method to most effectively normalize the microarray data.
Macrophages play an important role in the inflammatory responses involved with spinal cord injury (SCI). We have previously demonstrated that infiltrated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) engulf myelin debris, forming myelin-laden macrophages (mye-M). These mye-M promote disease progression through their pro-inflammatory phenotype, enhanced neurotoxicity, and impaired phagocytic capacity for apoptotic cells. We thus hypothesize that the excessive accumulation of mye-M is the root of secondary injury, and that targeting mye-M represents an efficient strategy to improve the local inflammatory microenvironment in injured spinal cords and to further motor neuron function recovery. In this study, we administer murine embryonic stem cell conditioned media (ESC-M) as a cell-free stem cell based therapy to treat a mouse model of SCI. We showed that BMDMs, but not microglial cells, engulf myelin debris generated at the injury site. Phagocytosis of myelin debris leads to the formation of mye-M in the injured spinal cord, which are surrounded by activated microglia cells. These mye-M are pro-inflammatory and lose the normal macrophage phagocytic capacity for apoptotic cells. We therefore focus on how to trigger lipid efflux from mye-M and thus restore their function. Using ESC-M as an immune modulating treatment for inflammatory damage after SCI, we rescued mye-M function and improved functional locomotor recovery. ESC-M treatment on mye-M resulted in improved exocytosis of internalized lipids and a normal capacity for apoptotic cell phagocytosis. Furthermore, when ESC-M was administered