Microarray techniques have been widely used to monitor gene expression in many areas of biomedical research. They have been widely used for tumor diagnosis and classification, prediction of prognoses and treatment, and understanding of molecular mechanisms, biochemical pathways, and gene networks. Statistical methods are vital for these scientific endeavors. This article reviews recent developments of statistical methods for analyzing data from microarray experiments. Emphasis has been given to normalization of expression from multiple arrays, selecting significantly differentially expressed genes, tumor classifications, and gene expression pathways and networks.
Inflammatory response following central nervous system (CNS) injury contributes to progressive neuropathology and reduction in functional recovery. Axons are sensitive to mechanical injury and toxic inflammatory mediators, which may lead to demyelination. Although it is well documented that degenerated myelin triggers undesirable inflammatory responses in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), there has been very little study of the direct inflammatory consequences of damaged myelin in spinal cord injury (SCI), i.e., there is no direct evidence to show that myelin debris from injured spinal cord can trigger undesirable inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Our data showed that myelin can initiate inflammatory responses in vivo, which is complement receptor 3 (CR3)-dependent via stimulating macrophages to express pro-inflammatory molecules and down-regulates expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Mechanism study revealed that myelin-increased cytokine expression is through activation of FAK/PI3K/Akt/NF-B signaling pathways and CR3 contributes to myelin-induced PI3K/Akt/NF-B activation and cytokine production. The myelin induced inflammatory response is myelin specific as sphingomyelin (the major lipid of myelin) and myelin basic protein (MBP, one of the major proteins of myelin) are not able to activate NF-B signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a crucial role of myelin as an endogenous inflammatory stimulus that induces pro-inflammatory responses and suggest that blocking myelin-CR3 interaction and
Macrophage activation and persistent inflammation contribute to the pathological process of spinal cord injury (SCI). It was reported that M2 macrophages were induced at 37 days after SCI but M2 markers were reduced or eliminated after 1 week. By contrast, M1 macrophage response is rapidly induced and then maintained at injured spinal cord. However, factors that modulate macrophage phenotype and function are poorly understood. We developed a model to distinguish bonemarrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) from residential microglia and explored how BMDMs change their phenotype and functions in response to the lesionrelated factors in injured spinal cord. Infiltrating BMDMs expressing higher Mac2 and lower CX3CR1 migrate to the epicenter of injury, while microglia expressing lower Mac2 but higher CX3CR1 distribute to the edges of lesion. Myelin debris at the lesion site switches BMDMs
The quantitative comparison of two or more microarrays can reveal, for example, the distinct patterns of gene expression that define different cellular phenotypes or the genes that are induced in the cellular response to certain stimulations. Normalization of the measured intensities is a prerequisite of such comparisons. However, a fundamental problem in cDNA microarray analysis is the lack of a common standard to compare the expression levels of different samples. Several normalization protocols have been proposed to overcome the variabilities inherent in this technology. We have developed a normalization procedure based on within-array replications via a semilinear in-slide model, which adjusts objectively experimental variations without making critical biological assumptions. The significant analysis of gene expressions is based on a weighted <i>t</i> statistic, which accounts for the heteroscedasticity of the
LPS is a main causative agent of septic shock. There is a lack of effective therapies. In vitro studies have shown that uptake of apoptotic cells actively inhibits the secretion by activated macrophages (M) of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF- and that such uptake increases the antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-. We therefore investigated the protective effect of apoptotic cells against LPS-induced endotoxic shock in mice. The current report is the first study to demonstrate that administration of apoptotic cells can protect mice from LPS-induced death, even when apoptotic cells were administered 24 h after LPS challenge. The beneficial effects of administration of apoptotic cells included 1) reduced circulating proinflammatory cytokines, 2) suppression of polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration in target organs, and 3) decreased serum LPS levels. LPS can quickly bind to apoptotic cells