This Paper is aimed to study a generalization of the Catlan Conjecture (The only nontrivial solution to& x^m-y^n=1& is x=3,m=2,y=2,n=3), that is, to determine the nontrivial solutions to& x^m-2y^n=1&. To solve this problem, I study some arithmetic properties of the solutions to Pell equation, or more precisely, when the minimum solution is fixed, the properties about factors of the recursive solutions to the equation. Furthermore, I apply these properties into the study of& x^m-2y^n=1& and obtain some successful results when n is restricted to be even. What’s more, some applications of these arithmetic properties in other problems are contained in the paper as well.
Hanci ChiEnglish School Attached to Guangdong University of Foreign StudiesYang LiuEnglish School Attached to Guangdong University of Foreign StudiesChengjun LuEnglish School Attached to Guangdong University of Foreign Studies
S.-T. Yau High School Science Awarded Papersmathscidoc:1608.35014
This research, initiated by a problem excerpted from Baidu, one of the most famous internet search engines in China, explores two types of movements, “converging curve” and “tracing curve” named by this research group, which really act in a regular pattern. In the research, by applying scores of mathematical methods, we found that the key to converging curves is to spot the invariant elements from the changeful motions. For tracing curves, we adopt estimating equations to get the solution. Due to the limit of time and the relevant knowledge of the research group, many unexpected problems constantly appeared which are quite far beyond our ability. Yet we still tried to apply some promising mathematical thoughts, and have achieved some exciting results. In the process of discovering and rediscovering, we did not succeed in finding a perfect solution to the problem. After all, as a group of middle school students fascinated by mathematics, creating and discovering more are the greatest delight of us all.
Our paper begins with a simple but beautiful subject given by Martin Gardner (Dividing ten gold coins and ten silver coins into two containers which look the same outside, then randomly choose one of the containers and take out one coin from the chosen container, Is the probability of getting golden coin becomes higher when the distributive method changes). And we change and consider the problem from some other points of view.
1. Researching the original subject’s probability.
2. Discussing the minimal unit of distributing golden coins.
3. Researching the number of containers.
4. Researching the minimal and maximal probability of getting golden coin which is the function expression of containers’ number.
As a result, we will understand the subject more deeply. The essence of the subject tells us: the reason of probability’s changing can not only be interpreted by “Sample Space difference and Sample Point difference”, but also “Classical Probability’s infection to Geometry Probability”.
According to this theory, we can model this subject: Gold→A and Silver→not A. Then we use the model in our example, successfully interpreting what J·BERTRAND had found. And we also get a conjecture and prove it. Further, we did some transformation of the original formulation according to the actual situation.
This is our paper’s main content.
Motivated by an extra credit problem from our Linear Algebra class, we study the invertibility probability of binary matrices (the number of invertible binary matrices divided by the total number of binary matrices). Binary matrices are of interest in combinatorics, information theory, cryptology, and graph theory. It is known that the invertibility probability of n × n binary matrices goes to 1 as n→∞. We conjecture that this probability monotonically increases as the size of the binary matrix increases, and we investigate this by exploring how n×n binary matrices of rank n and rank (n−1) can be enlarged to (n + 1) × (n + 1) invertible binary matrices. Calculating this explicitly for the identity matrix, we obtain a probable bound that would show that, in a sense, our conjecture is asymptotically true. With the use of a computer, we also computed how many (n + 1) × (n + 1) invertible binary matrices can be enlarged from n×n matrices of rank n and rank (n−1) for small n. In addition, we study the invertibility probability of matrices with entries in Z_q.
Characterization of homogeneous polynomials with isolated critical point at the origin follows from a study of complex geometry. Yau previously proposed a Numerical Characterization Conjecture. A step forward in solving this Conjecture, the Granville-Lin-Yau Conjecture was formulated, with a sharp estimate that counts the number of positive integral points in ndimensional (n≥3) real right-angled simplices with vertices whose distance to the origin are at least n-1. The estimate was proven for n≤6 but has a counterexample for n = 7. In this project we come up with an idea of forming a new sharp estimate conjecture where we need the
distances of the vertices to be n. We have proved this new sharp estimate conjecture for n≤7 and are in the process of proving the general n case.
This paper mainly focuses on the optimized methods of the sprinkling irrigation for greenery patches, by maximally equalizing the amount of water sprayed on a certain area. Various models are being discussed, where the main mathematical tool is analytic geometry, employed to research the possible effects of different proposals.
Firstly, the simplest models are built based on a totally ideal situation. Assuming that sprinkling spouts are spinning over plain lawn with a set of specified radii, install them in arrangements of simple geometric figures. Areas of overlapping and blank parts are being calculated and the most reasonable arrangement of all that are studied is selected.
Secondly, real factors are taken into consideration separately as follows: 1. The disequilibrium of the water that drops in a line from the sprinkling center is transformed into a functional expression, whose graphs are drawn to show the water distributed over the area; 2. The plane models are changed into solid ones on the assumption that the sprinkling spouts are placed on slopes. Analytic geometry methods are employed to describe the range of sprayed water on the oblique surface. Through calculation and analysis, models can be adjusted to specific situations.
Finally, the boundary problems and landscape effects are involved.
This paper researches on the judgment theorem and proof of the equivalency condition of a class of symmetric inequalities. By controlling two elementary symmetric polynomials and using the monotonicity of functions and Jensen inequality, it finds the necessary and sufficient condition of the equivalency a class of three-variable and n-variables symmetric inequalities. And we illustrate the application of this method in proof of these inequalities. Then we obtain several judgment theorems on symmetric and cyclic inequalities.
This article studied the speed of addition and multiplication of natural number in different scale systems, the times of addition and multiplication in different scale systems have been compared quantificationally through a function model presented. The conclusion is that binary system is the best for addition, binary system and ternary system are better than other scale systems for multiplication, and they each has a suitable range.
Heavy Snow will turn to a natural disaster, and will bring big economic losses. The authors hope to establish a mathematic model and a plan to illustrate how to sweep off the snow on main roads in a city so as to ensure the smooth flow of traffic. The research will become a basis on which the government can workout some plans against the snow disasters.
Firstly we made some assumptions, then studied the working process of snow-sweepers and derived a snow sweeping model. Based on this model, the relationship between working speed of snow-sweeper and snow thickness, a working model of snow-sweeper, and minimum sets of snow-sweeper needed were established. A deep-searching model and a model of snow-sweeping tree, and a computer program in PASCAL to determine the minimum number of snow-sweeper and the snow sweeping plans on main roads were obtained.
We tried several solutions to deal with this problem, such as using piecewise curve fitting to transform a formula h~ vc relating to a cubic equation operation to formula vc~ h ,using trial and error method to determine the minimum number of snow sweepers, using deep searching and tree structure in one-stroke processing in a complicated two-way road system, and also a matrix to deal with the deep searching.