Sign structure and ground-state properties for a spin−S t−J chain

Qing-Rui Wang Institute for Advanced Study, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China Peng Ye Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 2Y5

arXiv subject: Statistical Mechanics (cond-mat.stat-mech) arXiv subject: Strongly Correlated Electrons (cond-mat.str-el) mathscidoc:2206.48002

PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 90, 045106, 2014.7
The antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain of odd spin S is in the Haldane phase with several defining physical properties, such as thermodynamical ground-state degeneracy, symmetry-protected edge states, and nonzero string order parameter. If nonzero hole concentration δ and hole hopping energy t are considered, the spin chain is replaced by a spin-S t-J chain. The motivation of this paper is to generalize the discussions of the Haldane phase to the doped spin chain. The first result of this paper is that, for the model considered here, the \mathbb{Z}_2 sign structure in the usual Ising basis can be totally removed by two consecutive unitary transformations consisting of a spatially local one and a nonlocal one. Direct from the sign structure, the second result of this paper is that the Marshall theorem and the Lieb-Mattis theorem for pure spin systems are generalized to the t-J chain for arbitrary S and δ. A corollary of the theorem provides us with the ground-state degeneracy in the thermodynamic limit. The third result of this paper is about the phase diagram. We show that the defining properties of the Haldane phase survive in the small t/J limit. The large t/J phase supports a gapped spin sector with similar properties (ground-state degeneracy, edge state, and string order parameter) of the Haldane chain, although the charge sector is gapless.
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  title={Sign structure and ground-state properties for a spin−S t−J chain},
  author={Qing-Rui Wang, and Peng Ye},
  booktitle={PHYSICAL REVIEW B},
Qing-Rui Wang, and Peng Ye. Sign structure and ground-state properties for a spin−S t−J chain. 2014. Vol. 90. In PHYSICAL REVIEW B. pp.045106.
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