Noether’s Second Theorem and Ward Identities for Gauge Symmetries

Steven G. Avery Brown University Burkhard Schwab Brown University, Harvard University CMSA

Publications of CMSA of Harvard mathscidoc:1702.38039

Recently, a number of new Ward identities for large gauge transformations and large diffeomorphisms have been discovered. Some of the identities are reinterpretations of previously known statements, while some appear to be genuinely new. We use Noether’s second theorem with the path integral as a powerful way of generating these kinds of Ward identities. We reintroduce Noether’s second theorem and discuss how to work with the physical remnant of gauge symmetry in gauge fixed systems. We illustrate our mechanism in Maxwell theory, Yang–Mills theory, p-form field theory, and Einstein–Hilbert gravity. We comment on multiple connections between Noether’s second theorem and known results in the recent literature. Our approach suggests a novel point of view with important physical consequences.
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  title={Noether’s Second Theorem and Ward Identities for Gauge Symmetries},
  author={Steven G. Avery, and Burkhard Schwab},
Steven G. Avery, and Burkhard Schwab. Noether’s Second Theorem and Ward Identities for Gauge Symmetries.
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