Symmetry Enrichment in Three-Dimensional Topological Phases

Shang-Qiang Ning Tsinghua University Zheng-Xin Liu Renmin University of China Peng Ye University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Publications of CMSA of Harvard mathscidoc:1702.38071

While two-dimensional symmetry-enriched topological phases (𝖲𝖤𝖳s) have been studied intensively and systematically, three-dimensional ones are still open issues. We propose an algorithmic approach of imposing global symmetry Gs on gauge theories (denoted by 𝖦𝖳) with gauge group Gg. The resulting symmetric gauge theories are dubbed "symmetry-enriched gauge theories" (𝖲𝖤𝖦), which may be served as low-energy effective theories of three-dimensional symmetric topological quantum spin liquids. We focus on 𝖲𝖤𝖦s with gauge group Gg=ℤN1×ℤN2×⋯ and on-site unitary symmetry group Gs=ℤK1×ℤK2×⋯ or Gs=U(1)×ℤK1×⋯. Each 𝖲𝖤𝖦(Gg,Gs) is described in the path integral formalism associated with certain symmetry assignment. From the path-integral expression, we propose how to physically diagnose the ground state properties (i.e., 𝖲𝖤𝖳 orders) of 𝖲𝖤𝖦s in experiments of charge-loop braidings (patterns of symmetry fractionalization) and the \emph{mixed} multi-loop braidings among deconfined loop excitations and confined symmetry fluxes. From these symmetry-enriched properties, one can obtain the map from 𝖲𝖤𝖦s to 𝖲𝖤𝖳s. By giving full dynamics to background gauge fields, 𝖲𝖤𝖦s may be eventually promoted to a set of new gauge theories (denoted by 𝖦𝖳∗). Based on their gauge groups, 𝖦𝖳∗s may be further regrouped into different classes each of which is labeled by a gauge group G∗g. Finally, a web of gauge theories involving 𝖦𝖳, 𝖲𝖤𝖦, 𝖲𝖤𝖳 and 𝖦𝖳∗ is achieved. We demonstrate the above symmetry-enrichment physics and the web of gauge theories through many concrete examples.
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  title={Symmetry Enrichment in Three-Dimensional Topological Phases},
  author={Shang-Qiang Ning, Zheng-Xin Liu, and Peng Ye},
Shang-Qiang Ning, Zheng-Xin Liu, and Peng Ye. Symmetry Enrichment in Three-Dimensional Topological Phases.
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