Quantum Statistics and Spacetime Topology: Quantum Surgery Formulas

Juven Wang Xiao-Gang Wen Shing-Tung Yau

Theoretical Physics mathscidoc:1904.39001

To formulate the universal constraints of quantum statistics data of generic long-range entangled quantum systems, we introduce the geometric-topology surgery theory on spacetime manifolds where quantum systems reside, cutting and gluing the associated quantum amplitudes, specifically in 2+1 and 3+1 spacetime dimensions. First, we introduce the fusion data for worldline and worldsheet operators capable of creating anyonic excitations of particles and strings, well-defined in gapped states of matter with intrinsic topological orders. Second, we introduce the braiding statistics data of particles and strings, such as the geometric Berry matrices for particle-string Aharonov-Bohm, 3-string, 4-string, or multi-string adiabatic loop braiding process, encoded by submanifold linkings, in the closed spacetime 3-manifolds and 4-manifolds. Third, we derive new `quantum surgery' formulas and constraints, analogous to Verlinde formula associating fusion and braiding statistics data via spacetime surgery, essential for defining the theory of topological orders, 3d and 4d TQFTs and potentially correlated to bootstrap boundary physics such as gapless modes, extended defects, 2d and 3d conformal field theories or quantum anomalies. This article is meant to be an extended and further detailed elaboration of our previous work [arXiv:1602.05951] and Chapter 6 of [arXiv:1602.05569]. Our theory applies to general quantum theories and quantum mechanical systems, also applicable to, but not necessarily requiring the quantum field theory description.
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  title={Quantum Statistics and Spacetime Topology: Quantum Surgery Formulas},
  author={Juven Wang, Xiao-Gang Wen, and Shing-Tung Yau},
Juven Wang, Xiao-Gang Wen, and Shing-Tung Yau. Quantum Statistics and Spacetime Topology: Quantum Surgery Formulas. http://archive.ymsc.tsinghua.edu.cn/pacm_paperurl/20190419111025296139261.
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