In this paper, we formulate the deep residual network (ResNet) as a control problem of transport equation. In ResNet, the transport equation is solved along the characteristics. Based on this observation, deep neural network is closely related to the control problem of PDEs on manifold. We propose several models based on transport equation, Hamilton-Jacobi equation and Fokker-Planck equation. The discretization of these PDEs on point cloud is also discussed.
In this paper, we propose a novel low dimensional manifold model (LDMM) and
apply it to some image processing problems. LDMM is based on the fact that the patch manifolds
of many natural images have low dimensional structure. Based on this fact, the dimension of the
patch manifold is used as a regularization to recover the image. The key step in LDMM is to solve
a Laplace-Beltrami equation over a point cloud which is solved by the point integral method. The
point integral method enforces the sample point constraints correctly and gives better results than the
standard graph Laplacian. Numerical simulations in image denoising, inpainting and super-resolution
problems show that LDMM is a powerful method in image processing.
We demonstrate how path integrals often used in problems of theoretical physics can be adapted to provide a machinery for performing Bayesian inference in function spaces. Such inference comes about naturally in the study of inverse problems of recovering continuous (infinite dimensional) coefficient functions from ordinary or partial differential equations, a problem which is typically ill-posed. Regularization of these problems using L2 function spaces (Tikhonov regularization) is equivalent to Bayesian probabilistic inference, using a Gaussian prior. The Bayesian interpretation of inverse problem regularization is useful since it allows one to quantify and characterize error and degree of precision in the solution of inverse problems, as well as examine assumptions made in solving the problem—namely whether the subjective choice of regularization is compatible with prior knowledge. Using path-integral formalism, Bayesian inference can be explored through various perturbative techniques, such as the semiclassical approximation, which we use in this manuscript. Perturbative path-integral approaches, while offering alternatives to computational approaches like Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo (MCMC), also provide natural starting points for MCMC methods that can be used to refine approximations. In this manuscript, we illustrate a path-integral formulation for inverse problems and demonstrate it on an inverse problem in membrane biophysics as well as inverse problems in potential theories involving the Poisson equation.