The stochasticity of gene expression is manifested in the fluctuations of mRNA and protein copy numbers within a cell lineage over time. While data of this type can be obtained for many generations, most mathematical models are unsuitable to interpret such data since they assume non-growing cells. Here we develop a theoretical approach that quantitatively links the frequency content of lineage data to subcellular dynamics. We elucidate how the position, height, and width of the peaks in the power spectrum provide a distinctive fingerprint that encodes a wealth of information about mechanisms controlling transcription, translation, replication, degradation, bursting, promoter switching, cell cycle duration, cell division, gene dosage compensation, and cell size homeostasis. Predictions are confirmed by analysis of single-cell Escherichia coli data obtained using fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, by matching the experimental and theoretical power spectra, we infer the temperature-dependent gene expression parameters, without the need of measurements relating fluorescence intensities to molecule numbers.
We study how conserved quantities such as angular momentum and center of mass evolve with respect to the retarded time at null infinity, which is described in terms of a Bondi-Sachs coordinate system. These evolution formulae complement the classical Bondi mass loss formula for gravitational radiation. They are further expressed in terms of the potentials of the shear and news tensors. The consequences that follow from these formulae are (1) Supertranslation invariance of the fluxes of the CWY conserved quantities. (2) A conservation law of angular momentum \`a la Christodoulou. (3) A duality paradigm for null infinity. In particular, the supertranslation invariance distinguishes the CWY angular momentum and center of mass from the classical definitions.
As an important issue in special relativity, Wigner rotation is notoriously difficult for beginners for two major reasons: this physical phenomenon is highly unintuitive, and the mathematics behind it can be extremely challenging. To remove the first obstacle, we introduce a clear and easy toy model under the guidance of group theory. To overcome the second, a concise mathematical method is developed by the integration of geometric algebra and active-frame formalism.
We quantize the Hamilton equations instead of the Hamilton condition. The resulting equation has the simple form $-\D u=0$ in a fiber bundle, where the Laplacian is the Laplacian of the Wheeler-DeWitt metric provided $n\not=4$. Using then separation of variables the solutions $u$ can be expressed as products of temporal and spatial eigenfunctions, where the spatial eigenfunctions are eigenfunctions of the Laplacian in the symmetric space $SL(n,\R)/SO(n)$. Since one can define a Schwartz space and tempered distributions in $SL(n,\R)/SO(n)$ as well as a Fourier transform, Fourier quantization can be applied such that the spatial eigenfunctions are transformed to Dirac measures and the spatial Laplacian to a multiplication operator.