Jintai DingUniversity of Cincinnati, OH, USAJoshua DeatonUniversity of Cincinnati, OH, USAVishakhaUniversity of Cincinnati, OH, USABo-Yin YangInstitute of Information Science and Research Center of Information Technology and Innovation, Academia Sinica, 128 Section 2 Academia Road, Taipei 115-29, Taiwan
In 2017, Ward Beullenset al.submitted Lifted Unbalanced Oil andVinegar, which is a modification to the Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar Schemeby Patarin. Previously, Dinget al.proposed the Subfield Differential Attack which prompted a change of parameters by the authors of LUOV for the sec-ond round of the NIST post quantum standardization competition. In this paper we propose a modification to the Subfield Differential Attack called the Nested Subset Differential Attack which fully breaks half of the pa-rameter sets put forward. We also show by experimentation that this attack ispractically possible to do in under 210 minutes for the level I security param-eters and not just a theoretical attack. The Nested Subset Differential attack isa large improvement of the Subfield differential attack which can be used inreal world circumstances. Moreover, we will only use what is called the "lifted"structure of LUOV, and our attack can be thought as a development of solving"lifted" quadratic systems.
Jintai DingUniversity of Cincinnati, Ohio, USADoug EmeryUniversity of Cincinnati, Ohio, USAJohannes MuellerSnT, University of Luxembourg, LuxembourgPeter Y. A. RyanSnT, University of Luxembourg, LuxembourgVonn Kee WongUniversity of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
Anonymous veto networks (AV-nets), originally proposed by Hao and Zielinski (2006), are particularly lightweight protocols for evaluating a veto function in a peer-to-peer network such that anonymity of all protocol participants is preserved. Prior to this work, anonymity in all AV-nets from the literature relied on the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption and can thus be broken by (scalable) quantum computers. In order to defend against this threat, we propose two practical and completely lattice-based AV-nets. The first one is secure against passive and the second one is secure against active adversaries. We prove that anonymity of our AV-nets reduces to the ring learning with errors (RLWE) assumption. As such, our AV-nets are the first ones with post-quantum anonymity. We also provide performance benchmarks to demonstrate their practicality.
Chengdong TaoDing Lab, Beijing Institute of Mathematical Sci. and Applications, Beijing, ChinaAlbrecht PetzoldtFAU Erlangen-Nuremberg, Nuremberg, GermanyJintai DingYau Mathematical Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; Ding Lab, Beijing Institute of Mathematical Sci. and Applications, Beijing, China; Ding Lab, Beijing Institute of Mathematical Sci. and Applications, Beijing, China
The HFEv- signature scheme is a twenty year old multivariate public key signature scheme. It uses the Minus and the Vinegar modifier on the original HFE scheme. An instance of the HFEv- signature scheme called GeMSS is one of the alternative candidates for signature schemes in the third round of the NIST Post Quantum Crypto (PQC) Standardization Project. In this paper, we propose a new key recovery attack on the HFEv- signature scheme. We show that the Minus modification does not enhance the security of cryptosystems of the HFE family, while the Vinegar modification increases the complexity of our attack only by a polynomial factor. By doing so, we show that the proposed parameters of the GeMSS scheme are not as secure as claimed. Our attack shows that it is very difficult to build a secure and efficient signature scheme on the basis of HFEv-.
In this paper, we present a simple attack on LWE and Ring LWE encryption schemes used directly as Key Encapsulation Mechanisms (KEMs). This attack could work due to the fact that a key mismatch in a KEM is accessible to an adversary. Our method clearly indicates that any LWE or RLWE (or any similar type of construction) encryption directly used as KEM can be broken by modifying our attack method according to the respective cases.
Key Exchange (KE) is, undoubtedly, one of the most used cryptographic primitives in practice. Its authenticated version, Authenticated Key Exchange (AKE), avoids man-in-the-middle-based attacks by providing authentication for both parties involved. It is widely used on the Internet, in protocols such as TLS or SSH. In this work, we provide new constructions for KE and AKE based on ideal lattices in the Random Oracle Model (ROM). The contributions of this work can be summarized as follows:
1) It is well-known that RLWE-based KE protocols are not robust for key reuses since the signal function leaks information about the secret key. We modify the design of previous RLWE-based KE schemes to allow key reuse in the ROM. Our construction makes use of a new technique called pasteurization which enforces a supposedly RLWE sample sent by the other party to be indeed indistinguishable from a uniform sample and, therefore, ensures no information leakage in the whole KE process.
2) We build a new AKE scheme based on the construction above. The scheme provides implicit authentication (that is, it does not require the use of any other authentication mechanism, like a signature scheme) and it is proven secure in the Bellare-Rogaway model with weak Perfect Forward Secrecy in the ROM. It improves previous designs for AKE schemes based on lattices in several aspects. Our construction just requires sampling from only one discrete Gaussian distribution and avoids rejection sampling and noise flooding techniques, unlike previous proposals (Zhang et al., EUROCRYPT 2015). Thus, the scheme is much more efficient than previous constructions in terms of computational and communication complexity.
Since our constructions are provably secure assuming the hardness of the RLWE problem, they are considered to be robust against quantum adversaries and, thus, suitable for post-quantum applications.