Key Exchange (KE) is, undoubtedly, one of the most used cryptographic primitives in practice. Its authenticated version, Authenticated Key Exchange (AKE), avoids man-in-the-middle-based attacks by providing authentication for both parties involved. It is widely used on the Internet, in protocols such as TLS or SSH. In this work, we provide new constructions for KE and AKE based on ideal lattices in the Random Oracle Model (ROM). The contributions of this work can be summarized as follows:
1) It is well-known that RLWE-based KE protocols are not robust for key reuses since the signal function leaks information about the secret key. We modify the design of previous RLWE-based KE schemes to allow key reuse in the ROM. Our construction makes use of a new technique called pasteurization which enforces a supposedly RLWE sample sent by the other party to be indeed indistinguishable from a uniform sample and, therefore, ensures no information leakage in the whole KE process.
2) We build a new AKE scheme based on the construction above. The scheme provides implicit authentication (that is, it does not require the use of any other authentication mechanism, like a signature scheme) and it is proven secure in the Bellare-Rogaway model with weak Perfect Forward Secrecy in the ROM. It improves previous designs for AKE schemes based on lattices in several aspects. Our construction just requires sampling from only one discrete Gaussian distribution and avoids rejection sampling and noise flooding techniques, unlike previous proposals (Zhang et al., EUROCRYPT 2015). Thus, the scheme is much more efficient than previous constructions in terms of computational and communication complexity.
Since our constructions are provably secure assuming the hardness of the RLWE problem, they are considered to be robust against quantum adversaries and, thus, suitable for post-quantum applications.
Homomorphic Encryption is a breakthrough technology which can enable private cloud storage and computation solutions, and many applications have been described in the literature in the last few years. But before Homomorphic Encryption can be adopted in medical, health, and financial sectors to protect data and patient and consumer privacy, it will have to be standardized, most likely by multiple standardization bodies and government agencies. An important part of standardization is broad agreement on security levels for varying parameter sets. Although extensive research and benchmarking has been done in the research community to establish the foundations for this effort, it is hard to find all the information in one place, along with concrete parameter recommendations for applications and deployment.
This document is the first Homomorphic Encryption Standard (HES) approved by the Homomorphicencryption.org community in 2018. It captures the collective knowledge on the state of security of these schemes, specifies the schemes, and recommends a wide selection of parameters to be used for homomorphic encryption at various security levels. We describe known attacks and their estimated running times in order to make these security parameter recommendations.
In 1998, Jeffrey Hoffstein, Jill Pipher, and Joseph H. Silverman introduced the famous NTRU cryptosystem, and called it "A ring-based public key cryptosystem". Actually, it turns out to be a lattice based cryptosystem that is resistant to Shor's algorithm. There are several modifications to the original NTRU and two of them are selected as round 2 candidates of NIST post quantum public key scheme standardization.
In this paper, we present a simple attack on the original NTRU scheme. The idea comes from Ding et al.'s key mismatch attack. Essentially, an adversary can find information on the private key of a KEM by not encrypting a message as intended but in a manner which will cause a failure in decryption if the private key is in a certain form. In the present, NTRU has the encrypter generating a random polynomial with "small" coefficients, but we will have the coefficients be "large". After this, some further work will create an equivalent key.
Kyber is a KEM based their security on the Modular Learning with Errors problem and was selected in the second round of NIST Post-quantum standardization process. Before we put Kyber into practical application, it is very important to assess its security in hard practical conditions especially when the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformations are neglected. In this paper, we propose an efficient key mismatch attacks on Kyber, which can recover one participant's secret key if the public key is reused. We first define the oracles in which the adversary is able to launch the attacks. Then, we show that by accessing the oracle multiple times, the adversary is able to recover the coefficients in the secret key. Furthermore, we propose two strategies to reduce the queries and time in recovering the secret key. It turns out that it is actually much easier to use key mismatch attacks to break Kyber than NewHope, another NIST second round candidate, due to their different design structures. Our implementations have demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed attacks and verified our findings. Another interesting observation from the attack is that in the most powerful Kyber-1024, it is easier to recover each coefficient compared with that in Kyber-512 and Kyber-768. Specifically, for Kyber-512 on average we recover each coefficient with 2.7 queries, while in Kyber-1024 and 768, we only need 2.4 queries. This demonstrates further that implementations of LWE based schemes in practice is very delicate.
We use the signal function from RLWE key exchange to derive an efficient zero knowledge authentication protocol to validate an RLWE key p=as+e with secret s and error e in the Random Oracle Model (ROM). With this protocol, a verifier can validate that a key presented to him by a prover P is of the form p=as+e with s,e small and that the prover knows s. We accompany the description of the protocol with proof to show that it has negligible soundness and completeness error. The soundness of our protocol relies directly on the hardness of the RLWE problem. The protocol is applicable for both LWE and RLWE but we focus on the RLWE based protocol for efficiency and practicality. We also present a variant of the main protocol with a commitment scheme to avoid using the ROM.