In this paper, we show that the coupled modified KdV equations possess rich mathematical structures and some remarkable properties. The connections between the system and skew orthogonal polynomials, convergence acceleration algorithms and Laurent property are discussed in detail.
Firstly, a formal correspondence is established between the CamassaHolm (CH) equation and a two-component modified CH (or called SQQ) equation according to the method of <i>moment modification</i> for multipeakon formulae. Secondly, based on the generalized nonisospectral CH equation in Chang et al. (2014)  and the interlacing multipeakons of the two-component modified CH equation in Chang et al. (2016) , we propose a new generalized two-component modified CH equation with two parameters, which possesses a nonisospectral Lax pair. The proposed equation still admits multipeakon solutions of explicit and closed form. Sufficient conditions for global existence of solutions are given and two concrete examples with certain interesting phenomenon are presented. Last of all, as a by-product, a generalized nonisospectral modified CH equation is deduced, together with its Lax pair.
In this paper, we present a generalized Toeplitz determinant solution for the generalized Schur flow and propose a mixed form of the two known relativistic Toda chains together with its generalized Toeplitz determinant solution. In addition, we also give a Hankel type determinant solution for a nonisospectral Toda lattice. All these results are obtained by technical determinant operations. As a bonus, we finally obtain some new combinatorial numbers based on the moment relations with respect to these semi-discrete integrable systems and give the corresponding combinatorial interpretations by means of the lattice paths.
In this paper we give a combinatorial proof of an addition formula for weighted partial Motzkin paths. The addition formula allows us to determine the $ LDU $ decomposition of a Hankel matrix of the polynomial sequence defined by weighted partial Motzkin paths. As a direct consequence, we get the determinant of the Hankel matrix of certain combinatorial sequences. In addition, we obtain an addition formula for weighted large Schrder paths.
In this paper, we propose a direct method to evaluate Hankel determinants for some generating functions satisfying a certain type of quadratic equations, which cover generating functions of Catalan numbers, Motzkin numbers and Schrder numbers. Additionally, four recent conjectures proposed by Cigler (2011)  are proved.