Given a set of mixtures, blind source separation attempts to retrieve the source signals without or with very little information of the mixing process. We present a geometric approach for blind separation of nonnegative linear mixtures termed <i>facet component analysis</i>. The approach is based on facet identification of the underlying cone structure of the data. Earlier works focus on recovering the cone by locating its vertices (vertex component analysis) based on a mutual sparsity condition which requires each source signal to possess a stand-alone peak in its spectrum. We formulate alternative conditions so that enough data points fall on the facets of a cone instead of accumulating around the vertices. To find a regime of unique solvability, we make use of both geometric and density properties of the data points and develop an efficient facet identification method by combining data classification and linear
Motivated by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of biofluids (urine and blood serum), we present a recursive blind source separation (rBSS) method for nonnegative and correlated data. BSS problem arises when one attempts to recover a set of source signals from a set of mixture signals without knowing the mixing process. Various approaches have been developed to solve BSS problems relying on the assumption of statistical independence of the source signals. However, signal independence is not guaranteed in many real-world data like the NMR spectra of chemical compounds. The rBSS method introduced in this paper deals with the nonnegative and correlated signals arising in NMR spectroscopy of biofluids. The statistical independence requirement is replaced by a constraint which requires dominant interval(s) from each source signal over some of the other source signals in a
Motivated by applications in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we introduce a novel blind source separation (BSS) approach to treat nonnegative and correlated data. We consider the (over)-determined case where n sources are to be separated from n linear mixtures (n). Among the n source signals, there are n partially overlapping (Po) sources and one positive everywhere (Pe) source. This condition is applicable for many real-world signals such as NMR spectra of urine and blood serum for metabolic fingerprinting and disease diagnosis. The geometric properties of the mixture matrix and the sparseness structure of the source signals (in a transformed domain) are crucial to the identification of the mixing matrix and the sources. The method first identifies the mixing coefficients of the Pe source by exploiting geometry in data clustering. Then subsequent elimination of variables leads to a sub
A convex speech enhancement (CSE) method is presented based on convex optimization and pause detection of the speech sources. Channel spatial difference is identified for enhancing each speech source individually while suppressing other interfering sources. Sparse unmixing filters indicating channel spatial differences are sought by <i>l</i> <sub>1</sub> norm regularization and the split Bregman method. A subdivided split Bregman method is developed for efficiently solving the problem in severely reverberant environments. The speech pause detection is based on a binary mask source separation method. The CSE method is evaluated objectively and subjectively, and found to outperform a list of existing blind speech separation approaches on both synthetic and room recorded speech mixtures in terms of the overall computational speed and separation quality.
We study an efficient dynamic blind source separation algorithm of convolutive sound mixtures based on updating statistical information in the frequency domain, and minimizing the support of time domain demixing filters by a weighted least square method. The permutation and scaling indeterminacies of separation, and concatenations of signals in adjacent time frames are resolved with optimization of l 1 l norm on cross-correlation coefficients at multiple time lags. The algorithm is a direct method without iterations, and is adaptive to the environment. Computations on recorded benchmark mixtures of speech and music signals show excellent performance. The method in general separates a foreground source from a background of sounds as often encountered in realistic situations.
A time domain blind source separation algorithm of convolutive sound mixtures is studied based on a compact partial inversion formula in closed form. An L1-constrained minimization problem is formulated to find demixing filter coefficients for source separation while capturing scaling invariance and sparseness of solutions. The minimization aims to reduce (lagged) cross correlations of the mixture signals, which are modeled stochastically. The problem is non-convex, however it is put in a nonlinear least squares form where the robust and convergent Levenberg-Marquardt iterative method is applicable to compute local minimizers. Efficiency is achieved in recovering lower dimensional demixing filter solutions than the physical ones. Computations on recorded and synthetic mixtures show satisfactory performance, and are compared with other iterative methods.
We study sparse blind source separation (BSS) for a class of positive and partially overlapped signals. The signals are only allowed to have nonoverlapping at certain locations, while they could overlap with each other elsewhere. For nonnegative data, a novel approach has been proposed by Naanaa and Nuzillard (NN) assuming that nonoverlapping exists for each source signal at some location of acquisition variable. However, the NN method introduces errors (spurious peaks) in the output when their nonoverlapping condition is not satisfied. To resolve this problem and improve robustness of separation, postprocessing techniques are developed in two aspects. One is to detect coherent and uncertain components from NN outputs by using multiple mixture data, then removing the uncertain portion to enhance signals. The other is to find better estimation of mixing matrix by leveraging reliable source peak
A collaborative convex framework for factoring a data matrix <i>X</i> into a nonnegative product <i>AS</i> , with a sparse coefficient matrix <i>S</i> , is proposed. We restrict the columns of the dictionary matrix <i>A</i> to coincide with certain columns of the data matrix <i>X</i> , thereby guaranteeing a physically meaningful dictionary and dimensionality reduction. We use <i>l</i> <sub>1, </sub> regularization to select the dictionary from the data and show that this leads to an exact convex relaxation of <i>l</i> <sub>0</sub> in the case of distinct noise-free data. We also show how to relax the restriction-to- <i>X</i> constraint by initializing an alternating minimization approach with the solution of the convex model, obtaining a dictionary close to but not necessarily in <i>X</i> . We focus on applications of the proposed framework to hyperspectral endmember and abundance identification and also show an application to blind source separation of nuclear magnetic resonance data.
In geometric modeling and processing, computer graphics and computer vision, smooth surfaces are approximated by discrete triangular meshes reconstructed from sample points on the surfaces. A fundamental problem is to design rigorous algorithms to guarantee the geometric approximation accuracy by controlling the sampling density. This paper gives explicit formulae to the bounds of Hausdorff distance, normal distance and Riemannian metric distortion between the smooth surface and the discrete mesh in terms of principle curvature and the radii of geodesic circum-circle of the triangles. These formulae can be directly applied to design sampling density for data acquisitions and surface reconstructions. Furthermore, we prove that the meshes induced from the Delaunay triangulations of the dense samples on a smooth surface are convergent to the smooth surface under both Hausdorff distance and normal
We describe a high-resolution, real-time 3D absolute coordinate measurement system based on a phase-shifting method. It acquires 3D shape at 30 frames per second (fps), with 266K points per frame. A tiny marker is encoded in the projected fringe pattern, and detected by software from the texture image and the gamma map. Absolute 3D coordinates are obtained from the detected marker position and the calibrated system parameters. To demonstrate the performance of the system, we measure a hand moving over a depth distance of approximately 700 mm, and human faces with expressions. Applications of such a system include manufacturing, inspection, entertainment, security, medical imaging.