Penghang YinUniversity of California at Los AngelesShuai ZhangUniversity of California at IrvineJiancheng LyuUniversity of California at Los AngelesStanley OsherUniversity of California at IrvineYingyong QiUniversity of California at IrvineJack XinUniversity of California at Irvine
We propose BinaryRelax, a simple two-phase algorithm, for training deep neural networks with quantized weights. The set constraint that characterizes the quantization of weights is not imposed until the late stage of training, and a sequence of pseudo quantized weights is maintained. Specifically, we relax the hard constraint into a continuous regularizer via Moreau envelope, which turns out to be the squared Euclidean distance to the set of quantized weights. The pseudo quantized weights are obtained by linearly interpolating between the float weights and their quantizations. A continuation strategy is adopted to push the weights towards the quantized state by gradually increasing the regularization parameter. In the second phase, exact quantization scheme with a small learning rate is invoked to guarantee fully quantized weights. We test BinaryRelax on the benchmark CIFAR- 10 and CIFAR-100 color image datasets to demonstrate the superiority of the relaxed quantization approach and the improved accuracy over the state-of-the-art training methods. Finally, we prove the convergence of BinaryRelax under an approximate orthogonality condition.
We propose a numerical approach to solve variational problems on manifolds represented by the grid based particle method (GBPM) recently developed in Leung et al. (J. Comput. Phys. 230(7):25402561, 2011), Leung and Zhao (J. Comput. Phys. 228:77067728, 2009a, J. Comput. Phys. 228:29933024, 2009b, Commun. Comput. Phys. 8:758796, 2010). In particular, we propose a splitting algorithm for image segmentation on manifolds represented by unconnected sampling particles. To develop a fast minimization algorithm, we propose a new splitting method by generalizing the augmented Lagrangian method. To efficiently implement the resulting method, we incorporate with the local polynomial approximations of the manifold in the GBPM. The resulting method is flexible for segmentation on various manifolds including closed or open or even surfaces which are not orientable.