This paper proposes and analyzes arbitrarily high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and finite volume methods which provably preserve the positivity of density and pressure for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on general meshes. Unified auxiliary theories are built for rigorously analyzing the positivity-preserving (PP) property of numerical MHD schemes with a Harten–Lax–van Leer (HLL) type flux on polytopal meshes in any space dimension. The main challenges overcome here include establishing certain relation between the PP property and a discrete divergence of magnetic field on general meshes, and estimating proper wave speeds in the HLL flux to ensure the PP property. In the 1D case, we prove that the standard DG and finite volume methods with the proposed HLL flux are PP, under a condition accessible by a PP limiter. For the multidimensional conservative MHD system, the standard DG methods with a PP limiter are not PP in general, due to the effect of unavoidable divergence error in the magnetic field. We construct provably PP high-order DG and finite volume schemes by proper discretization of the symmetrizable MHD system, with two divergence-controlling techniques: the locally divergence-free elements and suitably discretized Godunov–Powell source term. The former technique leads to zero divergence within each cell, while the latter controls the divergence error across cell interfaces. Our analysis reveals in theory that a coupling of these two techniques is very important for positivity preservation, as they exactly contribute the discrete divergence terms which are absent in standard multidimensional DG schemes but crucial for ensuring the PP property. Several numerical tests further confirm the PP property and the effectiveness of the proposed PP schemes. Unlike the conservative MHD system, the exact smooth solutions of the symmetrizable MHD system are proved to retain the positivity even if the divergence-free condition is not satisfied. Our analysis and findings further the understanding, at both discrete and continuous levels, of the relation between the PP property and the divergence-free constraint.
This paper first studies the admissible state set $\mathcal G$ of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD). It paves a way for developing physical-constraints-preserving (PCP) schemes for the RMHD equations with the solutions in $\mathcal G$. To overcome the difficulties arising from the extremely strong nonlinearities and no explicit formulas of the primitive variables and the flux vectors with respect to the conservative vector, two equivalent forms of $\mathcal G$ with explicit constraints on the conservative vector are skillfully discovered. The first is derived by analyzing roots of several polynomials and transferring successively them, and further used to prove the convexity of $\mathcal G$ with the aid of semi-positive definiteness of the second fundamental form of a hypersurface. While the second is derived based on the convexity, and then used to show the orthogonal invariance of $\mathcal G$. The Lax–Friedrichs (LxF) splitting property does not hold generally for the nonzero magnetic field, but by a constructive inequality and pivotal techniques, we discover the generalized LxF splitting properties, combining the convex combination of some LxF splitting terms with a discrete divergence-free condition of the magnetic field. Based on the above analyses, several 1D and 2D PCP schemes are then studied. In the 1D case, a first-order accurate LxF-type scheme is first proved to be PCP under the Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) condition, and then the high-order accurate PCP schemes are proposed via a PCP limiter. In the 2D case, the discrete divergence-free condition and PCP property are analyzed for a first-order accurate LxF-type scheme, and two sufficient conditions are derived for high-order accurate PCP schemes. Our analysis reveals in theory for the first time that the discrete divergence-free condition is closely connected with the PCP property. Several numerical examples demonstrate the theoretical findings and the performance of numerical schemes.
We consider the reconstruction of the Robin impedance coefficient of a heat conduction system in a two-dimensional spatial domain from the time-average measurement specified on the boundary. By applying the potential representation of a solution, this nonlinear inverse problem is transformed into an ill-posed integral system coupling the density function for potential and the
unknown boundary impedance. The uniqueness as well as the conditional stability of this inverse problem is established from the integral system. Then we propose to find the boundary impedance by solving a non-convex regularizing optimization problem. The well-posedness of this optimization problem together with the convergence property of the minimizer is analyzed. Finally, based on the singularity decomposition of the potential representation of the solution, two iteration schemes with their numerical realizations are proposed to solve this optimization problem
We consider an inverse problem of recovering a time-dependent factor of an unknown source on some subboundary for a diffusion equation with time fractional derivative by nonlocal measurement data. Such fractional-order equations describe anomalous diffusion of some contaminants in heterogeneous media such as soil and model the contamination process from an unknown source located on a part of the boundary of the concerned domain. For this inverse problem, we firstly establish the well-posedness in some Sobolev space. Then we propose two regularizing schemes in order to reconstruct an unknown boundary source stably in terms of the noisy measurement data. The first regularizing scheme is based on an integral equation of the second kind which an unknown boundary source solves, and we prove a convergence rate of regularized solutions with a suitable choice strategy of the regularizing parameter. The second regularizing scheme relies directly on
discretization by the radial basis function for the initial-boundary value problem for fractional diffusion equation, and we carry out numerical tests, which show the validity of our proposed regularizing scheme.
We consider the problem of reconstructing unknown inclusions inside a thermal conductor from boundary measurements, which arises from active thermography and is formulated as an inverse boundary value problem for the heat equation. In our previous works, we proposed a sampling-type method for reconstructing the boundary of the unknown inclusion and gave its rigorous mathematical justification. In this paper, we continue our previous works and provide a further investigation of the reconstruction method from both the theoretical and numerical points of view. First, we analyze the solvability of the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map gap equation and establish a relation of its solution to the Green function of an interior transmission problem for the inclusion. This naturally provides a way of computing this Green function from the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map. Our new findings reveal the essence of the reconstruction method. A convergence result for noisy measurement data is also proved. Second, based on the heat layer potential argument, we perform a numerical implementation of the reconstruction method for the homogeneous inclusion case. Numerical results are presented to show the efficiency and stability of the proposed method.