Image retargeting techniques adjust images into different sizes and have attracted much attention recently. Objective quality assessment (OQA) of image retargeting results is often desired to automatically select the best results. Existing OQA methods train a model using some benchmarks (e.g., RetargetMe), in which subjective scores evaluated by users are provided. Observing that it is challenging even for human subjects to give consistent scores for retargeting results of different source images (diff-source-results), in this paper we propose a learning-based OQA method that trains a General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) model based on relative scores --- which preserve the ranking --- of retargeting results of the same source image (same-source-results). In particular, we develop a novel training scheme with provable convergence that learns a common base scalar for same-source-results. With this source specific offset, our computed scores not only preserve the ranking of subjective scores for same-source-results, but also provide a reference to compare the diff-source-results. We train and evaluate our GRNN model using human preference data collected in RetargetMe. We further introduce a subjective benchmark to evaluate the generalizability of different OQA methods. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms ten representative OQA methods in ranking prediction and has better generalizability to different datasets.
In this work, we give a geometric interpretation to the Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). The geometric view is based on the intrinsic relation between Optimal Mass Transportation (OMT) theory and convex geometry, and leads to a variational approach to solve the Alexandrov problem: constructing a convex polytope with prescribed face normals and volumes.
By using the optimal transportation view of GAN model, we show that the discriminator computes the Wasserstein distance via the Kantorovich potential, the generator calculates the transportation map. For a large class of transportation costs, the Kantorovich potential can give the optimal transportation map by a close-form formula. Therefore, it is sufficient to solely optimize the discriminator. This shows the adversarial competition can be avoided, and the computational architecture can be simplified.
Preliminary experimental results show the geometric method outperforms the traditional Wasserstein GAN for approximating probability measures with multiple clusters in low dimensional space.