Recent understandings of molecular evolution, together with the fossil records, have established that there are both linear and nonlinear processes in the creation of novel species, which is strikingly similar to the generation of prime numbers and human creativity. Each creation of a more complex species is like a prime number, unpredictable, discontinuous, and yet can be modeled by a smooth curve in relation to time. The mystery behind the complexity increases in nature and human civilizations might well turn out to be similar to that behind the appearances of prime numbers. Here we show that an algorithm for the creative process of humans can create prime numbers in a lawful and yet unpredictable fashion. The essence of primes is the duality of uniqueness and uniformity together with the creation algorithm. The algorithm consists of the non-linear process of uniformity selection to create the unique and the linear process of uniqueness selection to form the uniformity. The iterations of this algorithm can create an infinite number of primes. The algorithm appears to have been hardwired in the human brain as shown by recent experimental studies. This new understanding can deduce some of the best-known properties of primes and may explain the nearly constant and yet seemingly random creation of novelty in relation to time.
We give an overview of our philosophy of pictures in mathematics. We emphasize a bidirectional process between picture lan- guage and mathematical concepts: abstraction and simulation. This motivates a program to understand different subjects, using virtual and real mathematical concepts simulated by pictures.
We show that if X is a uniformly perfect complete metric space satisfying
the finite doubling property, then there exists a fully supported measure with lower regularity
dimension as close to the lower dimension of X as we wish. Furthermore, we show that, under
the condensation open set condition, the lower dimension of an inhomogeneous self-similar set EC
coincides with the lower dimension of the condensation set C, while the Assouad dimension of
EC is the maximum of the Assouad dimensions of the corresponding self-similar set E and the
condensation set C. If the Assouad dimension of C is strictly smaller than the Assouad dimension
of E, then the upper regularity dimension of any measure supported on EC is strictly larger than
the Assouad dimension of EC. Surprisingly, the corresponding statement for the lower regularity
Recent consumer interest in controlling and preventing chronic diseases through improved diet has promoted research on the bioactive components of agricultural products. Wheat is an important agricultural and dietary commodity worldwide with known antioxidant properties concentrated mostly in the bran fraction. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of genotype (G) and growing environment (E) to hard winter wheat bran antioxidant properties, as well as correlations of these properties to growing conditions. Bran samples of 20 hard winter wheat varieties grown in two locations were examined for their free radical scavenging capacities against DPPH, ABTS cation, peroxyl (ORAC), and superoxide anion radicals and chelating properties, as well as their total phenolics and phenolic acid compositions. Results showed significant differences for all antioxidant properties tested and multiple significant correlations between these properties. A factorial designed analysis of variance for these data and pooled previously published data showed similar results for four of the six antioxidant properties, indicating that G effects were considerably larger than E effects for chelating capacity and DPPH radical scavenging properties, whereas E was much stronger than G for ABTS cation radical scavenging capacity and total phenolics, although small interaction effects (G × E) were significant for all antioxidant properties analyzed. Results also showed significant correlations between temperature stress or solar radiation and some antioxidant properties. These results indicate that each antioxidant property of hard winter wheat bran is influenced differently by genotype and growing conditions.