This paper presents entropy symmetrization and high-order accurate entropy stable schemes for the relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations. It is shown that the conservative RMHD equations are not symmetrizable and do not admit a thermodynamic entropy pair. To address this issue, a symmetrizable RMHD system, equipped with a convex thermodynamic entropy pair, is first proposed by adding a source term into the equations, providing an analogue to the nonrelativistic Godunov--Powell system. Arbitrarily high-order accurate entropy stable finite difference schemes are developed on Cartesian meshes based on the symmetrizable RMHD system. The crucial ingredients of these schemes include (i) affordable explicit entropy conservative fluxes which are technically derived through carefully selected parameter variables, (ii) a special high-order discretization of the source term in the symmetrizable RMHD system, and (iii) suitable high-order dissipative operators based on essentially nonoscillatory reconstruction to ensure the entropy stability. Several numerical tests demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed entropy stable schemes.
Numerical schemes provably preserving the positivity of density and pressure are highly desirable for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), but the rigorous positivity-preserving (PP) analysis remains challenging. The difficulties mainly arise from the intrinsic complexity of the MHD equations as well as the indeterminate relation between the PP property and the divergence-free condition on the magnetic field. This paper presents the first rigorous PP analysis of conservative schemes with the Lax--Friedrichs (LF) flux for 1D and multidimensional ideal MHD. The significant innovation is the discovery of the theoretical connection between the PP property and a discrete divergence-free (DDF) condition. This connection is established through the generalized LF splitting properties, which are alternatives to the usually expected LF splitting property that does not hold for ideal MHD. The generalized LF splitting properties involve a number of admissible states strongly coupled by the DDF condition, making their derivation very difficult. We derive these properties via a novel equivalent form of the admissible state set and an important inequality, which is skillfully constructed by technical estimates. Rigorous PP analysis is then presented for finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin schemes with the LF flux on uniform Cartesian meshes. In the 1D case, the PP property is proved for the first-order scheme with proper numerical viscosity, and also for arbitrarily high-order schemes under conditions accessible by a PP limiter. In the 2D case, we show that the DDF condition is necessary and crucial for achieving the PP property. It is observed that even slightly violating the proposed DDF condition may cause failure to preserve the positivity of pressure. We prove that the 2D LF type scheme with proper numerical viscosity preserves both the positivity and the DDF condition. Sufficient conditions are derived for 2D PP high-order schemes, and extension to 3D is discussed. Numerical examples provided in the supplementary material further confirm the theoretical findings.
This paper proposes and analyzes arbitrarily high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and finite volume methods which provably preserve the positivity of density and pressure for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on general meshes. Unified auxiliary theories are built for rigorously analyzing the positivity-preserving (PP) property of numerical MHD schemes with a Harten–Lax–van Leer (HLL) type flux on polytopal meshes in any space dimension. The main challenges overcome here include establishing certain relation between the PP property and a discrete divergence of magnetic field on general meshes, and estimating proper wave speeds in the HLL flux to ensure the PP property. In the 1D case, we prove that the standard DG and finite volume methods with the proposed HLL flux are PP, under a condition accessible by a PP limiter. For the multidimensional conservative MHD system, the standard DG methods with a PP limiter are not PP in general, due to the effect of unavoidable divergence error in the magnetic field. We construct provably PP high-order DG and finite volume schemes by proper discretization of the symmetrizable MHD system, with two divergence-controlling techniques: the locally divergence-free elements and suitably discretized Godunov–Powell source term. The former technique leads to zero divergence within each cell, while the latter controls the divergence error across cell interfaces. Our analysis reveals in theory that a coupling of these two techniques is very important for positivity preservation, as they exactly contribute the discrete divergence terms which are absent in standard multidimensional DG schemes but crucial for ensuring the PP property. Several numerical tests further confirm the PP property and the effectiveness of the proposed PP schemes. Unlike the conservative MHD system, the exact smooth solutions of the symmetrizable MHD system are proved to retain the positivity even if the divergence-free condition is not satisfied. Our analysis and findings further the understanding, at both discrete and continuous levels, of the relation between the PP property and the divergence-free constraint.
This paper first studies the admissible state set $\mathcal G$ of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD). It paves a way for developing physical-constraints-preserving (PCP) schemes for the RMHD equations with the solutions in $\mathcal G$. To overcome the difficulties arising from the extremely strong nonlinearities and no explicit formulas of the primitive variables and the flux vectors with respect to the conservative vector, two equivalent forms of $\mathcal G$ with explicit constraints on the conservative vector are skillfully discovered. The first is derived by analyzing roots of several polynomials and transferring successively them, and further used to prove the convexity of $\mathcal G$ with the aid of semi-positive definiteness of the second fundamental form of a hypersurface. While the second is derived based on the convexity, and then used to show the orthogonal invariance of $\mathcal G$. The Lax–Friedrichs (LxF) splitting property does not hold generally for the nonzero magnetic field, but by a constructive inequality and pivotal techniques, we discover the generalized LxF splitting properties, combining the convex combination of some LxF splitting terms with a discrete divergence-free condition of the magnetic field. Based on the above analyses, several 1D and 2D PCP schemes are then studied. In the 1D case, a first-order accurate LxF-type scheme is first proved to be PCP under the Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) condition, and then the high-order accurate PCP schemes are proposed via a PCP limiter. In the 2D case, the discrete divergence-free condition and PCP property are analyzed for a first-order accurate LxF-type scheme, and two sufficient conditions are derived for high-order accurate PCP schemes. Our analysis reveals in theory for the first time that the discrete divergence-free condition is closely connected with the PCP property. Several numerical examples demonstrate the theoretical findings and the performance of numerical schemes.
We consider the reconstruction of the Robin impedance coefficient of a heat conduction system in a two-dimensional spatial domain from the time-average measurement specified on the boundary. By applying the potential representation of a solution, this nonlinear inverse problem is transformed into an ill-posed integral system coupling the density function for potential and the
unknown boundary impedance. The uniqueness as well as the conditional stability of this inverse problem is established from the integral system. Then we propose to find the boundary impedance by solving a non-convex regularizing optimization problem. The well-posedness of this optimization problem together with the convergence property of the minimizer is analyzed. Finally, based on the singularity decomposition of the potential representation of the solution, two iteration schemes with their numerical realizations are proposed to solve this optimization problem