In this paper, we give a variational analysis to the planar dual Minkowski problem in the Sobolev space. With the new variational characterization, we can deal with existence results for prescribed not necessarily positive data. Meanwhile, functional inequalities and multiple solutions are also obtained.
Motivated by reformulating Furstenberg's $\times p,\times q$ conjecture via representations of a crossed product $C^*$-algebra, we show that in a discrete $C^*$-dynamical system $(A,\Gamma)$, the space of (ergodic) $\Gamma$-invariant states on $A$ is homeomorphic to a subspace of (pure) state space of $A\rtimes\Gamma$. Various applications of this in topological dynamical systems and representation theory are obtained. In particular, we prove that the classification of ergodic $\Gamma$-invariant regular Borel probability measures on a compact Hausdorff space $X$ is equivalent to the classification a special type of irreducible representations of $C(X)\rtimes \Gamma$.
We investigate compact quantum group actions on unital $C^*$-algebras by analyzing invariant subsets and invariant states. In particular, we come up with the concept of compact quantum group orbits and use it to show that countable compact metrizable spaces with infinitely many points are not quantum homogeneous spaces.