The goal of this paper is to prove rigorous results for the behavior of genealogies in a one-dimensional long range biased voter model introduced by Hallatschek and Nelson [Theor. Pop. Biol. 73 (2008) 158–170]. The first step, which is easily accomplished using results of Mueller and Tribe [Probab. Theory Related Fields 102 (1995) 519–545], is to show that when space and time are rescaled correctly, our biased voter model converges to a Wright–Fisher SPDE. A simple extension of a result of Durrett and Restrepo [Ann. Appl. Probab. 18 (2008) 334–358] then shows that the dual branching coalescing random walk converges to a branching Brownian motion in which particles coalesce after an exponentially distributed amount of intersection local time. Brunet et al. [Phys. Rev. E (3) 76 (2007) 041104, 20] have conjectured that genealogies in models of this type are described by the Bolthausen–Sznitman coalescent, see [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110 (2013) 437–442]. However, in the model we study there are no simultaneous coalescences. Our third and most significant result concerns “tracer dynamics” in which some of the initial particles in the biased voter model are labeled. We show that the joint distribution of the labeled and unlabeled particles converges to the solution of a system of stochastic partial differential equations. A new duality equation that generalizes the one Shiga [In Stochastic Processes in Physics and Engineering (Bielefeld, 1986) (1988) 345–355 Reidel] developed for the Wright–Fisher SPDE is the key to the proof of that result.
A new non-conservative stochastic reaction–diffusion system in which
two families of random walks in two adjacent domains interact near the interface
is introduced and studied in this paper. Such a system can be used
to model the transport of positive and negative charges in a solar cell or the
population dynamics of two segregated species under competition. We show
that in the macroscopic limit, the particle densities converge to the solution of
a coupled nonlinear heat equations. For this, we first prove that propagation
of chaos holds by establishing the uniqueness of a new BBGKY hierarchy.
A local central limit theorem for reflected diffusions in bounded Lipschitz
domains is also established as a crucial tool.
We introduce an interacting particle system in which two families of reflected diffusions interact in a singular manner near a deterministic interface I. This system can be used to model the transport of positive and negative charges in a solar cell or the population dynamics of two segregated species under competition. A related interacting random walk model with discrete state spaces has recently been introduced and studied in Chen and Fan (2014). In this paper, we establish the functional law of large numbers for this new system, thereby extending the hydrodynamic limit in Chen and Fan (2014) to reflected diffusions in domains with mixed-type boundary conditions, which include absorption (harvest of electric charges). We employ a new and direct approach that avoids going through the delicate BBGKY hierarchy.
We establish necessary and sufficient conditions for consistent root reconstruction in continuous-time Markov models with countable state space on bounded-height trees. Here a root state estimator is said to be consistent if the probability that it returns to the true root state converges to 1 as the number of leaves tends to infinity. We also derive quantitative bounds on the error of reconstruction. Our results answer a question of Gascuel and Steel [GS10] and have implications for ancestral sequence reconstruction in a classical evolutionary model of nucleotide insertion and deletion [TKF91].
Into a geometric setting, we import the physical interpretation of index theorems via semi-classical analysis
in topological quantum field theory. We develop a direct relationship between Fedosov’s deformation
quantization of a symplectic manifold X and the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) quantization of a one-dimensional
sigma model with target X. This model is a quantum field theory of AKSZ type and is quantized rigorously
using Costello’s homotopic theory of effective renormalization. We show that Fedosov’s Abelian connections
on the Weyl bundle produce solutions to the effective quantum master equation. Moreover, BV integration
produces a natural trace map on the deformation quantized algebra. This formulation allows us to
exploit a (rigorous) localization argument in quantum field theory to deduce the algebraic index theorem
via semi-classical analysis, i.e., one-loop Feynman diagram computations.