The estimation of large covariance and precision matrices is fundamental in modern multivariate analysis. However, problems arise from the statistical analysis of large panel economic and financial data. The covariance matrix reveals marginal correlations between variables, while the precision matrix encodes conditional correlations between pairs of variables given the remaining variables. In this paper, we provide a selective review of several recent developments on the estimation of large covariance and precision matrices. We focus on two general approaches: a rankbased method and a factormodelbased method. Theories and applications of both approaches are presented. These methods are expected to be widely applicable to the analysis of economic and financial data.
This is the <i>Leonardo da Vinci Lecture</i> given in Milan in March 2006. It is a survey on the concept of space-time over the last 3000years: it starts with Euclidean geometry, discusses the contributions of Gauss and Riemannian geometry, presents the dynamic concept of space-time in Einsteins general relativity, describes the importance of symmetries, and ends with Calabi-Yau manifolds and their importance in todays string theories in the attempt for a unified theory of physics.
This article reviews the literature on sparse high-dimensional models and discusses some applications in economics and finance. Recent developments in theory, methods, and implementations in penalized least-squares and penalized likelihood methods are highlighted. These variable selection methods are effective in sparse high-dimensional modeling. The limits of dimensionality that regularization methods can handle, the role of penalty functions, and their statistical properties are detailed. Some recent advances in sparse ultra-high-dimensional modeling are also briefly discussed.