This article focuses on numerically studying the eigenstructure behavior of generalized eigenvalue problems (GEPs) arising in three dimensional (3D) source-free Maxwell's equations with magnetoelectric coupling effects which model 3D reciprocal chiral media. It is challenging to solve such a large-scale GEP efficiently. We combine the null-space free method with the inexact shift-invert residual Arnoldi method and MINRES linear solver to solve the GEP with a matrix dimension as large as 5,308,416. The eigenstructure is heavily determined by the chirality parameter $\gamma$. We show that all the eigenvalues are real and finite for a small chirality $\gamma$. For a critical value $\gamma = \gamma^*$, the GEP has $2 \times 2$ Jordan blocks at infinity eigenvalues. Numerical results demonstrate that when $\gamma$ increases from $\gamma^*$, the $2 \times 2$ Jordan block will first split into a complex conjugate eigenpair, then rapidly collide with the real axis and bifurcate into positive (resonance) and negative eigenvalues with modulus smaller than the other existing positive eigenvalues. The resonance band also exhibits an anticrossing interaction. Moreover, the electric and magnetic fields of the resonance modes are localized inside the structure, with only a slight amount of field leaking into the background (dielectric) material.
Szemerédi's regularity lemma and its variants are some of the most powerful tools in combinatorics. In this paper, we establish several results around the regularity lemma. First, we prove that whether or not we include the condition that the desired vertex partition in the regularity lemma is equitable has a minimal effect on the number of parts of the partition. Second, we use an algorithmic version of the (weak) Frieze–Kannan regularity lemma to give a substantially faster deterministic approximation algorithm for counting subgraphs in a graph. Previously, only an exponential dependence for the running time on the error parameter was known, and we improve it to a polynomial dependence. Third, we revisit the problem of finding an algorithmic regularity lemma, giving approximation algorithms for several co-NP-complete problems. We show how to use the weak Frieze–Kannan regularity lemma to approximate the regularity of a pair of vertex subsets. We also show how to quickly find, for each ε′>ε, an ε′-regular partition with k parts if there exists an ε-regular partition with k parts. Finally, we give a simple proof of the permutation regularity lemma which improves the tower-type bound on the number of parts in the previous proofs to a single exponential bound.