We give a complete classification of (co)torsion pairs in finite $2$-Calabi-Yau triangulated categories with maximal rigid objects which are not cluster tilting. These finite $2$-Calabi-Yau triangulated categories are divided into two main classes: one denoted by $\A_{n,t}$ called of type $A$, and the other denoted by $D_{n,t}$ called of type $D$. By using the geometric model of cluster categories of type $A, $ or type $D$, we give a geometric description of (co)torsion pairs in $\A_{n,t}$ or $D_{n,t}$ respectively, via defining the periodic Ptolemy diagrams. This allows to count the number of (co)torsion pairs in these categories. Finally, we determine the hearts of (co)torsion pairs in all finite $2$-Calabi-Yau triangulated categories with maximal rigid objects which are not cluster tilting via quivers and relations.