We prove uniqueness of ground state solutions$Q$=$Q$(|$x$|) ≥ 0 of the non-linear equation $$(-\Delta)^s Q+Q-Q^{\alpha+1}= 0 \quad {\rm in} \, \mathbb{R},$$ where 0 <$s$< 1 and 0 <$α$< 4$s$/(1−2$s$) for $${s<\frac{1}{2}}$$ and 0 <$α$<$∞$for $${s\geq \frac{1}{2}}$$ . Here (−Δ)^{$s$}denotes the fractional Laplacian in one dimension. In particular, we answer affirmatively an open question recently raised by Kenig–Martel–Robbiano and we generalize (by completely different techniques) the specific uniqueness result obtained by Amick and Toland for $${s=\frac{1}{2}}$$ and$α$= 1 in [5] for the Benjamin–Ono equation.