In  it was observed that asymptotic boundary conditions play an important role in the study of holographic entanglement beyond AdS/CFT. In particular, the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal must be modified for warped AdS 3 (WAdS 3) with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this paper, we consider AdS 3 and WAdS 3 with Dirichlet-Neumann bound-ary conditions. The conjectured holographic duals are warped conformal field theories (WCFTs), featuring a Virasoro-Kac-Moody algebra. We provide a holographic calculation of the entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy using AdS 3 /WCFT and WAdS 3 /WCFT du-alities. Our bulk results are consistent with the WCFT results derived by Castro-Hofman-Iqbal using the Rindler method. Comparing with , we explicitly show that the holographic entanglement entropy is indeed affected by boundary conditions. Both results differ from the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, indicating new relations between spacetime geometry and quantum entanglement for holographic dualities beyond AdS/CFT.
Symmetry-Protected Topological (SPT) phases are gapped phases of quantum matter protected by global symmetries that cannot be adiabatically deformed to a trivial phase without breaking symmetry. In this work, we show that, for several SPT phases that are short range entangled (SRE), enlarging symmetries may effectively achieve the consequences of explicitly breaking symmetries. In other words, we demonstrate that non-trivial SPT phases can be unwound to trivial ones by symmetry extension- through a path where the Hilbert space is enlarged and the Hamiltonian is invariant under an extended symmetry group applying the idea of Wang, Wen and Witten in arXiv:1705.06728. We show examples of both bosonic and fermionic SPT phases in 1+1 dimensions, including Haldane's bosonic spin chain and layers of Kitaev's fermionic Majorana chains. By adding degrees of freedom into the boundary/bulk, we can lift the zero mode degeneracy, or unwind the whole system. Furthermore, based on properties of Schur cover, we sketch a general picture of unwinding applicable to any 1+1 D bosonic SPT phase protected by on-site finite symmetry. Altogether we show that SRE states can be unwound by symmetry breaking, inversion and symmetry extension.
Hongliang JiangDepartment of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and TechnologyWei SongYau Mathematical Sciences Center,Tsinghua UniversityQiang WenYau Mathematical Sciences Center,Tsinghua University
BMS symmetry, which is the asymptotic symmetry at null infinity of flat
spacetime, is an important input for flat holography. In this paper, we give a holographic
calculation of entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy in three dimensional Einstein gravity
and Topologically Massive Gravity. The geometric picture for the entanglement entropy
is the length of a spacelike geodesic which is connected to the interval at null infinity by
two null geodesics. The spacelike geodesic is the fixed points of replica symmetry, and the
null geodesics are along the modular flow. Our strategy is to first reformulate the Rindler
method for calculating entanglement entropy in a general setup, and apply it for BMS
invariant field theories, and finally extend the calculation to the bulk.
To understand the new physics and richness of quantum many-body system phenomena is one of the stimuli driving the condensed matter community forward. Importantly, the new insights and solutions for condensed matter theory sometimes come from the developed and developing knowledge of high energy theory, mathematical and particle physics, which is also true the other way around: Condensed matter physics has been providing crucial hints and playgrounds for the fundamental laws of high energy physics. In this thesis, we explore the aspects of symmetry, topology and anomalies in quantum matter with entanglement from both condensed matter and high energy theory viewpoints. The focus of our research is on the gapped many-body quantum systems including symmetry-protected topological states (SPTs) and topologically ordered states (TOs). We first explore the ground state structures of SPTs and TOs: the former can be symmetry twisted and the latter has robust degeneracy. The Berry phases generated by transporting and overlapping ground state sectors potentially provide universal topological invariants that fully characterize the SPTs and TOs. This framework provides us the aspects of symmetry and topology. We establish a field theory representation of SPT invariants in any dimension to uncover group cohomology classification and beyond — the former for SPTs with gapless boundary gauge anomalies, the latter for SPTs with mixed gauge-gravity anomalies. We study topological orders in 3+1 dimensions such as Dijkgraaf-Witten models, which support multi-string braiding statistics; the resulting patterns may be analyzed by the mathematical theory of knots and links. We explore the aspects of surface anomalies of bulk gapped states from the bulk-edge correspondence: The gauge anomalies of SPTs shed light on the construction of bosonic anomalies including Goldstone-Wilczek type, and also guide us to design a non-perturbative lattice model regularizing the low-energy chiral fermion/gauge theory towards the Standard Model while overcoming the Nielsen-Ninomiya fermion-doubling problem without relying on Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. We conclude by utilizing aspects of both quantum mechanical topology and spacetime topology to derive new formulas analogous to Verlinde’s via geometric-topology surgery. This provides new insights for higher dimensional topological states of matter.