Among all the interesting spaces in topology, the spheres are no doubt beautiful objects and of most consideration since antiquity. Any nontrivial observations of them are of course very important. From the categorical point of view, we should not just focus on the objects themselves, but the morphisms between them as well. For this purpose, in algebraic topology, we do want to classify the set of continuous morphisms between spheres under the equivalent relation named homotopy, which describes a continuous deformation between two continuous maps. Let Sn be the n-sphere and k (X) be the set of homotopic equivalent based maps from Sk to X. For the reason that Sk is a double suspension when k 2, the set is actually an abelian group. A natural question is, what are these abelian groups?
Persistent homology is constrained to purely topological persistence, while multiscale graphs account only for geometric information. This work introduces persistent spectral theory to create a unified low-dimensional multiscale paradigm for revealing topological persistence and extracting geometric shapes from high-dimensional datasets. For a point-cloud dataset, a filtration procedure is used to generate a sequence of chain complexes and associated families of simplicial complexes and chains, from which we construct persistent combinatorial Laplacian matrices. We show that a full set of topological persistence can be completely recovered from the harmonic persistent spectra, that is, the spectra that have zero eigenvalues, of the persistent combinatorial Laplacian matrices. However, non-harmonic spectra of the Laplacian
matrices induced by the filtration offer another powerful tool for data analysis, modeling, and prediction. In this work, fullerene stability is predicted by using both harmonic spectra and non-harmonic persistent spectra, while the latter spectra are successfully devised to analyze the structure of fullerenes and model protein flexibility, which cannot be straightforwardly extracted from the current persistent homology. The proposed method is found to provide excellent predictions of the protein B-factors for which current popular biophysical models break down.
The path complex and its homology were defined in the previous papers of authors. The theory of path complexes is a natural discrete generalization of the theory of simplicial complexes and the homology of path complexes provide homotopy invariant homology theory of digraphs and (nondirected) graphs. In the paper we study the homology theory of path complexes. In particular, we describe functorial properties of paths complexes, introduce notion of homotopy for path complexes and prove the homotopy invariance of path homology groups. We prove also several theorems that are similar to the results of classical homology theory of simplicial complexes. Then we apply obtained results for construction homology theories on various categories of hypergraphs. We describe basic properties of these homology theories and relations between them. As a particular case, these results give new homology theories on the category of simplicial complexes.
We prove that the 61-sphere has a unique smooth structure. Following results of Moise , Kervaire-Milnor , Browder  and Hill-Hopkins-Ravenel , we show that the only odd dimensional spheres with a unique smooth structure are S1, S3, S5 and S61.
The E_1-term of the (2-local) bo-based Adams spectral sequence for the sphere spectrum decomposes into a direct sum of a v_1-periodic part, and a v_1-torsion part. Lellmann and Mahowald completely computed the d_1-differential on the v_1-periodic part, and the corresponding contribution to the E_2-term. The v_1-torsion part is harder to handle, but with the aid of a computer it was computed through the 20-stem by Davis. Such computer computations are limited by the exponential growth of v_1-torsion in the E_1-term. In this paper, we introduce a new method for computing the contribution of the v_1-torsion part to the E_2-term, whose input is the cohomology of the Steenrod algebra. We demonstrate the efficacy of our technique by computing the bo-Adams spectral sequence beyond the 40-stem.