Planar polynomial curves have rational offset curves, if they are either Pythagorean-hodograph (PH) or indirect Pythagorean-hodograph (iPH) curves. In this paper, we derive an algebraic and two geometric characterizations for planar quartic iPH curves. The characterizations are given in terms of quantities related to the Bézier control polygon of the curve, and naturally extend to quartic and cubic PH and quadratic iPH curves.
Surface conformal parameterizations have been widely applied to various tasks in computer graphics. In this paper, we develop a convergent conformal energy minimization (CCEM) iterative algorithm via the line-search gradient descent method with a quadratic approximation for the computation of disk-shaped conformal parameterizations of simply connected open triangular meshes. In addition, we prove the global convergence of the proposed CCEM iterative algorithm. Moreover, under some mild assumptions, we prove the existence of the nontrivial solution, which is a local minimum of the conformal energy with a bijective boundary map. Numerical experiments indicate that the efficiency of the proposed CCEM algorithm is highly improved and the accuracy is competitive with that of state-of-the-art algorithms.
3D surface classification is a fundamental problem in computer vision and computational geometry. Surfaces can be classified by different transformation groups. Traditional classification methods mainly use topological transformation groups and Euclidean transformation groups. This paper introduces a novel method to classify surfaces by conformal transformation groups. Conformal equivalent class is refiner than topological equivalent class and coarser than isometric equivalent class, making it suitable for practical classification purposes. For general surfaces, the gradient fields of conformal maps form a vector space, which has a natural structure invariant under conformal transformations. We present an algorithm to compute this conformal structure, which can be represented as matrices, and use it to classify surfaces. The result is intrinsic to the geometry, invariant to triangulation and insensitive to resolution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to classify surfaces with arbitrary topologies by global conformal invariants. The method introduced here can also be used for surface matching problems.
In this work, we introduce two sets of algorithms inspired by the ideas from modern geometry. One is computational conformal geometry method, including harmonic maps, holomorphic 1-forms and Ricci flow. The other one is optimization method using affine normals.
This paper is motivated by the problem of subdividing a prismatic mesh to a tetrahedral mesh (without inserting Steiner points) so as to not only match arbitrarily prescribed boundary conditions but also allow arbitrary topologies in the base mesh. We explore all possible combinations of these two factors, and propose a complete solution to this 3D problem by converting it to an equivalent 2D graph problem, called cutting flow problem. For each case, we not only prove the sufficient and necessary condition for the existence of solutions, but also provide linear and provable algorithms to compute a solution whenever there is one.
Brain Cortical surface registration is required for inter-subject studies of functional and anatomical data. Harmonic mapping has been applied for brain mapping, due to its existence, uniqueness, regularity and numerical stability. In order to improve the registration accuracy, sculcal landmarks are usually used as constraints for brain registration. Unfortunately, constrained harmonic mappings may not be diffeomorphic and produces invalid registration. This work conquer this problem by changing the Riemannian metric on the target cortical surface to a hyperbolic metric, so that the harmonic mapping is guaranteed to be a diffeomorphism while the landmark constraints are enforced as boundary matching condition. The computational algorithms are based on the Ricci flow method and hyperbolic heat diffusion. Experimental results demonstrate that, by changing the Riemannian metric, the registrations are
Structured light system using a digital video projector is increasingly used for a 3-D shape measurement because of its digital nature. However, the nonlinear gamma of the projector causes the projected fringe patterns to be non-sinusoidal, which results in phase error therefore shape measurement error. Previous work showed that, by using a small look-up-table (LUT), this type of phase error can be reduced significantly for a three-step phase-shifting algorithm. In this research, we prove that this type of phase error compensation method is not limited to a three-step phase-shifting algorithm. It is generic for any phase-shifting algorithm. The phase error compensation algorithm is able to theoretically eliminate the phase error caused by the gamma of the projector completely. It is based on our finding that in phase domain, the phase error due to the projector's gamma is preserved for arbitrary object's surface
We propose a method to map a multiply connected bounded planar region conformally to a bounded region with circular boundaries. The norm of the derivative of such a conformal map satisfies the Laplace equation with a nonlinear Neumann type boundary condition. We analyze the singular behavior at corners of the boundary and separate the major singular part. The remaining smooth part solves a variational problem which is easy to discretize. We use a finite element method and a gradient descent method to find an approximate solution. The conformal map is then constructed from this norm function. We tested our algorithm on a polygonal region and a curvilinear smooth region.
Computational conformal geometry focuses on developing the computational methodologies on discrete surfaces to discover conformal geometric invariants. In this work, we briefly summarize the recent developments for methods and related applications in computational conformal geometry. There are two major approaches, holomorphic differentials and curvature flow. The holomorphic differential method is a linear method, which is more efficient and robust to triangulations with lower quality. The curvature flow method is nonlinear and requires higher quality triangulations, but more flexible. The conformal geometric methods have been broadly applied in many engineering fields, such as computer graphics, vision, geometric modeling and medical imaging. The algorithms are robust for surfaces scanned from real life, general for surfaces with different topologies. The efficiency and efficacy of the algorithms
Can you capture the motion of a smile in 3-D? This paper presents a video acquisition system that measures 3-D geometry accurately. The data acquisition speed is 90 fps and over one quarter million points per frame. Acquisition, reconstruction, and display are simultaneously realized at 30 fps.
Automatic computation of surface correspondence via harmonic map is an active research field in computer vision, computer graphics and computational geometry. It may help document and understand physical and biological phenomena and also has broad applications in biometrics, medical imaging and motion capture industries. Although numerous studies have been devoted to harmonic map research, limited progress has been made to compute a diffeomorphic harmonic map on general topology surfaces with landmark constraints. This work conquers this problem by changing the Riemannian metric on the target surface to a hyperbolic metric so that the harmonic mapping is guaranteed to be a diffeomorphism under landmark constraints. The computational algorithms are based on Ricci flow and nonlinear heat diffusion methods. The approach is general and robust. We employ our algorithm to study the
Here we propose a novel method to compute Teichmller shape space based shape index to study brain morphometry. Such a shape index is intrinsic, and invariant under conformal transformations, rigid motions and scaling. We conformally map a genus-zero open boundary surface to the Poincar disk with the Yamabe flow method. The shape indices that we compute are the lengths of a special set of geodesics under hyperbolic metric. Tests on longitudinal brain imaging data were used to demonstrate the stability of the derived feature vectors. In leave-one-out validation tests, we achieved 100% accurate classification (versus only 68% accuracy for volume measures) in distinguishing 11 HIV/AIDS individuals from 8 healthy control subjects, based on Teichmller coordinates for lateral ventricular surfaces extracted from their 3D MRI scans.
We propose a novel method to apply Teichmller space theory to study the signature of a family of nonintersecting closed 3D curves on a general genus zero closed surface. Our algorithm provides an efficient method to encode both global surface and local contour shape information. The signatureTeichmller shape descriptoris computed by surface Ricci flow method, which is equivalent to solving an elliptic partial differential equation on surfaces and is numerically stable. We propose to apply the new signature to analyze abnormalities in brain cortical morphometry. Experimental results with 3D MRI data from Alzheimers disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) dataset [152 healthy control subjects versus 169 Alzheimers disease (AD) patients] demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and illustrate its potential as a novel surface-based cortical morphometry measurement in AD research.
In medical imaging, parameterized 3D surface models are of great interest for anatomical modeling and visualization, statistical comparisons of anatomy, and surface-based registration and signal processing. Here we introduce a parameterization method based on algebraic functions. By solving the Yamabe equation with the Ricci flow method, we can conformally map a brain surface to a multi-hole disk. The resulting parameterizations do not have any singularities and are intrinsic and stable. To illustrate the technique, we computed parameterizations of several types of anatomical surfaces in MRI scans of the brain, including the hippocampi and the cerebral cortices with various landmark curves labeled. For the cerebral cortical surfaces, we show the parameterization results are consistent with selected landmark curves and can be matched to each other using constrained harmonic maps. Unlike previous
We develop a general approach that uses holomorphic 1-forms to parameterize anatomical surfaces with complex (possibly branching) topology. Rather than evolve the surface geometry to a plane or sphere, we instead use the fact that all orientable surfaces are Riemann surfaces and admit conformal structures, which induce special curvilinear coordinate systems on the surfaces. Based on Riemann surface structure, we can then canonically partition the surface into patches. Each of these patches can be conformally mapped to a parallelogram. The resulting surface subdivision and the parameterizations of the components are intrinsic and stable. To illustrate the technique, we computed conformal structures for several types of anatomical surfaces in MRI scans of the brain, including the cortex, hippocampus, and lateral ventricles. We found that the resulting parameterizations were consistent across
Texture mapping and texture synthesis are two popular methods for the decoration of surfaces with visual detail. Here, an existing challenge is to preserve, or at least balance, two competing metrics: scale and angle. In this paper we present two methods for this, both based on global conformal parameterization. First, we describe a texture synthesis algorithm for surfaces with arbitrary topology. By using the conformal parameterization, the 3D surface texture synthesis problem can be converted to a 2D image synthesis problem, which is more intuitive, easier, and conceptually simpler. While the conformality of the parameterization naturally preserves the angles of the texture, in this paper we provide a multi-scale technique to also maintain a more uniform area scaling factor. A second novel contribution is to employ the global parameterization to simultaneously preserve orthogonality and size in texture
We report recent progress in the computation of conformal mappings from surfaces with arbitrary topologies to canonical domains. Two major computational methodologies are emphasized; one is holomorphic differentials based on Riemann surface theory and the other is surface Ricci flow from geometric analysis. The applications of surface conformal mapping in the field of engineering are briefly reviewed.
3D surface classification is a fundamental problem in computer vision and computational geometry. Surfaces can be classified by different transformation groups. Traditional classification methods mainly use topological transformation groups and Euclidean transformation groups. We introduce a novel method to classify surfaces by conformal transformation groups. Conformal equivalent class is refiner than topological equivalent class and coarser than isometric equivalent class, making it suitable for practical classification purposes. For general surfaces, the gradient fields of conformal maps form a vector space, which has a natural structure invariant under conformal transformations. We present an algorithm to compute this conformal structure, which can be represented as matrices, and use it to classify surfaces. The result is intrinsic to the geometry, invariant to triangulation and insensitive to resolution. To the best
A structured light system for three-dimensional shape measurement with single camera has the shortcoming of camera occlusion. To alleviate this problem, this paper introduces a structured light system with dual cameras for three-dimensional shape measurement. We discuss (1) system description, (2) system calibration, (3) three-dimensional data registration using the iterative closest-point (ICP) algorithm, and (4) three-dimensional data merging using holoimage. The principle of the system is introduced, and experiments are presented to verify its performance.
There is an unmet medical need to identify neuroimaging biomarkers that allow us to accurately diagnose and monitor Alzheimer's disease (AD) at its very early stages and to assess the response to AD-modifying therapies. To a certain extent, volumetric and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies can detect changes in structure, cerebral blood flow, and blood oxygenation that distinguish AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects from healthy control (HC) subjects. However, it has been challenging to use fully automated MRI analytic methods to identify potential AD neuroimaging biomarkers. We have thus proposed a method based on independent component analysis (ICA) for studying potential AD-related MR image features that can be coupled with the use of support vector machine (SVM) for classifying scans into categories of AD, MCI, and HC subjects. The MRI data were selected from
In medical imaging, parameterized 3-D surface models are useful for anatomical modeling and visualization, statistical comparisons of anatomy, and surface-based registration and signal processing. Here we introduce a parameterization method based on Riemann surface structure, which uses a special curvilinear net structure (conformal net) to partition the surface into a set of patches that can each be conformally mapped to a parallelogram. The resulting surface subdivision and the parameterizations of the components are intrinsic and stable (their solutions tend to be smooth functions and the boundary conditions of the Dirichlet problem can be enforced). Conformal parameterization also helps transform partial differential equations (PDEs) that may be defined on 3-D brain surface manifolds to modified PDEs on a two-dimensional parameter domain. Since the Jacobian matrix of a conformal parameterization is
This paper describes a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)-assisted real-time three-dimensional shape measurement system. Our experiments demonstrated that the absolute coordinates calculation and rendering speed of a GPU is more than four times faster than that of a dual CPU workstation with the same graphics card. By implementing the GPU into our system, we realized simultaneous absolute coordinate acquisition, reconstruction and display at 30 frames per second with a resolution of approximately 266K points per frame. Moreover, a 2+1 phase-shifting algorithm was employed to alleviate the measurement error caused by motion. Applications of the system include medical imaging, manufacturing, entertainment, and security.
This paper describes a high-resolution, real-time, three-dimensional shape measurement system using the modified two-plus-one phase-shifting algorithm. The data acquisition speed is as high as 60 frames/s with an image resolution of 640480 pixels per frame. Experiments demonstrated that the system was able to acquire the dynamic changing objects such as facial geometric shape changes when the subject is speaking, and the modified two-plus-one phase-shifting algorithm can further alleviate the error due to motion. Applications of this system include manufacturing, online inspection, medical imaging, compute vision, and computer graphics.
Parameterizations of manifolds are widely applied to the fields of numerical partial differential equations and computer graphics. To this end, in recent years several efficient and reliable numerical algorithms have been developed by different research groups for the computation of triangular and tetrahedral mesh parameterizations. However, it is still challenging when the topology of manifolds is nontrivial, e.g., the 3-manifold of a topological solid torus. In this paper, we propose a novel volumetric stretch energy minimization algorithm for volume-preserving parameterizations of toroidal polyhedra with a single boundary being mapped to a standard torus. In addition, the algorithm can also be used to compute the equiareal mapping between a genus-one closed surface and the standard torus. Numerical experiments indicate that the developed algorithm is effective and performs well on the bijectivity of the mapping. Applications on manifold registrations and partitions are demonstrated to show the robustness of our algorithms.
Surface parameterizations have been widely applied in the computer-aided design for the geometric processing tasks of surface registration, remeshing, texture mapping, and so on. In this paper, we present an efficient balanced energy minimization (BEM) algorithm for the computation of simply connected open surface parameterizations with balanced angle and area distortions. The existence of a nontrivial accumulation function of the BEM algorithm is guaranteed under some mild conditions and the limiting function is shown to be one-to-one. Comparisons of the BEM algorithm with the angle- and the area-preserving parameterizations show that the angular distortion is close to that of the angle-preserving parameterization while the area distortion is significantly improved. An application of the BEM on the Chinese virtual broadcasting technique is demonstrated thereafter, which is consisted of surface remeshing, registration, and morphing.