Let V be an N-graded, simple, self-contragredient, C_2-cofinite vertex operator algebra. We show that if the S-transformation of the character of V is a linear combination of characters of V-modules, then the category C of grading-restricted generalized V-modules is a rigid tensor category. We further show, without any assumption on the character of V but assuming that C is rigid, that C is a factorizable finite ribbon category, that is, a not-necessarily-semisimple modular tensor category. As a consequence, we show that if the Zhu algebra of V is semisimple, then C is semisimple and thus V is rational. The proofs of these theorems use techniques and results from tensor categories together with the method of Moore-Seiberg and Huang for deriving identities of two-point genus-one correlation functions associated to V. We give two main applications. First, we prove the conjecture of Kac-Wakimoto and Arakawa that C_2-cofinite affine W-algebras obtained via quantum Drinfeld-Sokolov reduction of admissible-level affine vertex algebras are strongly rational. The proof uses the recent result of Arakawa and van Ekeren that such W-algebras have semisimple (Ramond twisted) Zhu algebras. Second, we use our rigidity results to reduce the "coset rationality problem" to the problem of C2-cofiniteness for the coset. That is, given a vertex operator algebra inclusion U⊗V↪A with A, U strongly rational and U, V a pair of mutual commutant subalgebras in A, we show that V is also strongly rational provided it is C_2-cofinite.
Let V⊆A be a conformal inclusion of vertex operator algebras and let C be a category of grading-restricted generalized V-modules that admits the vertex algebraic braided tensor category structure of Huang-Lepowsky-Zhang. We give conditions under which C inherits semisimplicity from the category of grading-restricted generalized A-modules in C, and vice versa. The most important condition is that A be a rigid V-module in C with non-zero categorical dimension, that is, we assume the index of V as a subalgebra of A is finite and non-zero. As a consequence, we show that if A is strongly rational, then V is also strongly rational under the following conditions: A contains V as a V-module direct summand, V is C_2-cofinite with a rigid tensor category of modules, and A has non-zero categorical dimension as a V-module. These results are vertex operator algebra interpretations of theorems proved for general commutative algebras in braided tensor categories. We also generalize these results to the case that A is a vertex operator superalgebra.
Let O_c be the category of finite-length central-charge-c modules for the Virasoro Lie algebra whose composition factors are irreducible quotients of reducible Verma modules. Recently, it has been shown that O_c admits vertex algebraic tensor category structure for any c∈C. Here, we determine the structure of this tensor category when c=13−6p−6/p for an integer p>1. For such c, we prove that O_c is rigid, and we construct projective covers of irreducible modules in a natural tensor subcategory O_c^0. We then compute all tensor products involving irreducible modules and their projective covers. Using these tensor product formulas, we show that O_c has a semisimplification which, as an abelian category, is the Deligne product of two tensor subcategories that are tensor equivalent to the Kazhdan-Lusztig categories for affine sl_2 at levels −2+p^±1. Next, as a straightforward consequence of the braided tensor category structure on O_c together with the theory of vertex operator algebra extensions, we rederive known results for triplet vertex operator algebras W(p), including rigidity, fusion rules, and construction of projective covers. Finally, we prove a recent conjecture of Negron that O_c^0 is braided tensor equivalent to the PSL(2,C)-equivariantization of the category of W(p)-modules.
We show that the Kazhdan-Lusztig category KL_k of level-k finite-length modules with highest-weight composition factors for the affine Lie superalgebra gl(1|1)ˆ has vertex algebraic braided tensor supercategory structure, and that its full subcategory O_k^fin of objects with semisimple Cartan subalgebra actions is a tensor subcategory. We show that every simple gl(1|1)ˆ-module in KL_k has a projective cover in O_k^fin, and we determine all fusion rules involving simple and projective objects in O_k^fin. Then using Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations, we prove that KL_k and O_k^fin are rigid. As an application of the tensor supercategory structure on O_k^fin, we study certain module categories for the affine Lie superalgebra sl(2|1)ˆ at levels 1 and −1/2. In particular, we obtain a tensor category of sl(2|1)ˆ-modules at level −1/2 that includes relaxed highest-weight modules and their images under spectral flow.
We construct two non-semisimple braided ribbon tensor categories of modules for each singlet vertex operator algebra M(p), p≥2. The first category consists of all finite-length M(p)-modules with atypical composition factors, while the second is the subcategory of modules that induce to local modules for the triplet vertex operator algebra W(p). We show that every irreducible module has a projective cover in the second of these categories, although not in the first, and we compute all fusion products involving atypical irreducible modules and their projective covers.
We show that direct limit completions of vertex tensor categories inherit vertex and braided tensor category structures, under conditions that hold for example for all known Virasoro and affine Lie algebra tensor categories. A consequence is that the theory of vertex operator (super)algebra extensions also applies to infinite-order extensions. As an application, we relate rigid and non-degenerate vertex tensor categories of certain modules for both the affine vertex superalgebra of osp(1|2) and the N=1 super Virasoro algebra to categories of Virasoro algebra modules via certain cosets.
We find sufficient conditions for the construction of vertex algebraic intertwining operators, among generalized Verma modules for an affine Lie algebra g^, from g-module homomorphisms. When g=sl_2, these results extend previous joint work with J. Yang, but the method used here is different. Here, we construct intertwining operators by solving Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations for three-point correlation functions associated to g^, and we identify obstructions to the construction arising from the possible non-existence of series solutions having a prescribed form.
A two-dimensional chiral conformal field theory can be viewed mathematically as the representation theory of its chiral algebra, a vertex operator algebra. Vertex operator algebras are especially well suited for studying logarithmic conformal field theory (in which correlation functions have logarithmic singularities arising from non-semisimple modules for the chiral algebra) because of the logarithmic tensor category theory of Huang, Lepowsky, and Zhang. In this paper, we study not-necessarily-semisimple or rigid braided tensor categories C of modules for the fixed-point vertex operator subalgebra V^G of a vertex operator (super)algebra V with finite automorphism group G. The main results are that every V^G-module in C with a unital and associative V-action is a direct sum of g-twisted V-modules for possibly several g∈G, that the category of all such twisted V-modules is a braided G-crossed (super)category, and that the G-equivariantization of this braided G-crossed (super)category is braided tensor equivalent to the original category C of V^G-modules. This generalizes results of Kirillov and Müger proved using rigidity and semisimplicity. We also apply the main results to the orbifold rationality problem: whether V^G is strongly rational if V is strongly rational. We show that V^G is indeed strongly rational if V is strongly rational, G is any finite automorphism group, and V^G is C_2-cofinite.
We relate commutative algebras in braided tensor categories to braid-reversed tensor equivalences, motivated by vertex algebra representation theory. First, for C a braided tensor category, we give a detailed construction of the canonical algebra in C⊠C^rev: if C is semisimple but not necessarily finite or rigid, then ⨁X∈Irr(C) X′⊠X is a commutative algebra, with X′ a representing object for Hom_C(∙⊗_C X,1_C). Conversely, let A=⨁i∈I U_i ⊠ V_i be a simple commutative algebra in U⊠V with U semisimple and rigid but not necessarily finite, and V rigid but not necessarily semisimple. If the unit objects of U and V form a commuting pair in A, we show there is a braid-reversed equivalence between subcategories of U and V sending U_i to (V_i)*. When U and V are module categories for simple vertex operator algebras U and V, we glue U and V along U⊠V via a map τ: Irr(U)→Obj(V) such that τ(U)=V to create A=⨁X∈Irr(U) X′⊗τ(X). Thus under certain conditions, τ extends to a braid-reversed equivalence between U and V if and only if A is a simple conformal vertex algebra extending U⊗V. As examples, we glue Kazhdan-Lusztig categories at generic levels to obtain new vertex algebras extending the tensor product of two affine vertex algebras, and we prove braid-reversed equivalences between certain module categories for affine vertex algebras and W-algebras at admissible levels.
Suppose V^G is the fixed-point vertex operator subalgebra of a compact group G acting on a simple abelian intertwining algebra V. We show that if all irreducible V^G-modules contained in V live in some braided tensor category of V^G-modules, then they generate a tensor subcategory equivalent to the category Rep G of finite-dimensional representations of G, with associativity and braiding isomorphisms modified by the abelian 3-cocycle defining the abelian intertwining algebra structure on V. Additionally, we show that if the fusion rules for the irreducible V^G-modules contained in V agree with the dimensions of spaces of intertwiners among G-modules, then the irreducibles contained in V already generate a braided tensor category of V^G-modules. These results do not require rigidity on any tensor category of V^G-modules and thus apply to many examples where braided tensor category structure is known to exist but rigidity is not known; for example they apply when V^G is C_2-cofinite but not necessarily rational. When V^G is both C_2-cofinite and rational and V is a vertex operator algebra, we use the equivalence between Rep G and the corresponding subcategory of V^G-modules to show that V is also rational. As another application, we show that a certain category of modules for the Virasoro algebra at central charge 1 admits a braided tensor category structure equivalent to Rep SU(2), up to modification by an abelian 3-cocycle.