We aim to maximize the number of first-quadrant lattice points in a convex domain with respect to reciprocal stretching in the coordinate directions. The optimal domain is shown to be asymptotically balanced, meaning that the stretch factor approaches 1 as the “radius” approaches infinity. In particular, the result implies that among all p-ellipses (or Lamé curves), the p-circle encloses the most first-quadrant lattice points as the radius approaches infinity, for 1<p<∞.
The case p=2 corresponds to minimization of high eigenvalues of the Dirichlet Laplacian on rectangles, and so our work generalizes a result of Antunes and Freitas. Similarly, we generalize a Neumann eigenvalue maximization result of van den Berg, Bucur and Gittins. Further, Ariturk and Laugesen recently handled 0<p<1 by building on our results here.
The case p=1 remains open, and is closely related to minimizing energy levels of harmonic oscillators: which right triangles in the first quadrant with two sides along the axes will enclose the most lattice points, as the area tends to infinity?
We provide some characterizations for SOC-monotone and SOC-convex functions by using differential analysis. From these characterizations, we particularly obtain that a continuously differentiable function defined in an open interval is SOC-monotone (SOC-convex) of order <i>n</i> 3 if and only if it is 2-matrix monotone (matrix convex), and furthermore, such a function is also SOC-monotone (SOC-convex) of order <i>n</i> 2 if it is 2-matrix monotone (matrix convex). In addition, we also prove that Conjecture 4.2 proposed in Chen (Optimization 55:363385, 2006) does not hold in general. Some examples are included to illustrate that these characterizations open convenient ways to verify the SOC-monotonicity and the SOC-convexity of a continuously differentiable function defined on an open interval, which are often involved in the solution methods of the convex second-order cone optimization.
A not necessarily continuous, linear or multiplicative function from an algebra A into itself is called a local automorphism if agrees with an automorphism of A at each point in A. In this paper, we study the question when a local automorphism of a C*-algebra, or a W*-algebra, is an automorphism.
We study the control systems governed by abstract Volterra equations without uniqueness in a Banach space. By using the technique of the theory of condensing maps and multivalued analysis tools, we obtain the existence result, investigate the topological structure of the solution set, and prove the invariance of a reachability set of the control system under nonlinear perturbations. Examples concerning fractional order differential equations and first order evolution equations with multiple delays are proposed to demonstrate the applications to approximate controllability results.