Consider an age-dependent, single-species branching process defined by a progeny number distribution, and a lifetime distribution associated with each independent particle. In this paper, we focus on the associated inverse problem where one wishes to formally solve for the progeny number distribution or the lifetime distribution that defines the Bellman-Harris branching process. We derive results for the existence and uniqueness (the identifiability) of these two distributions given one of two types of information: the extinction time probability of the entire process (extinction time distribution), or the distribution of the total number of particles at one fixed time. We demonstrate that perfect knowledge of the distribution of extinction times allows us to formally determine either the progeny number distribution or the lifetime distribution. Furthermore, we show that these constructions are unique. We then consider “data” consisting of a perfectly known total number distribution given at one specific time. For a process with known progeny number distribution and exponentially distributed lifetimes, we show that the rate parameter is identifiable. For general lifetime distributions, we also show that the progeny distribution is globally unique. Our results are presented through four theorems, each describing the constructions in the four distinct cases.
In  it was observed that asymptotic boundary conditions play an important role in the study of holographic entanglement beyond AdS/CFT. In particular, the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal must be modified for warped AdS 3 (WAdS 3) with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this paper, we consider AdS 3 and WAdS 3 with Dirichlet-Neumann bound-ary conditions. The conjectured holographic duals are warped conformal field theories (WCFTs), featuring a Virasoro-Kac-Moody algebra. We provide a holographic calculation of the entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy using AdS 3 /WCFT and WAdS 3 /WCFT du-alities. Our bulk results are consistent with the WCFT results derived by Castro-Hofman-Iqbal using the Rindler method. Comparing with , we explicitly show that the holographic entanglement entropy is indeed affected by boundary conditions. Both results differ from the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, indicating new relations between spacetime geometry and quantum entanglement for holographic dualities beyond AdS/CFT.
The Standard Models contain chiral fermions coupled to gauge theories. It has been a long-standing problem to give such gauged chiral fermion theories a quantum non-perturbative definition. By classification of quantum anomalies and symmetric invertible topological orders via a mathematical cobordism theorem for differentiable and triangulable manifolds, and the existence of symmetric gapped boundary for the trivial symmetric invertible topological orders, we propose that Spin(10) chiral fermion theories with Weyl fermions in 16-dimensional spinor representations can be defined on a 3+1D lattice, and subsequently dynamically gauged to be a Spin(10) chiral gauge theory. As a result, the Standard Models from the 16n-chiral fermion SO(10) Grand Unification can be defined non-perturbatively via a 3+1D local lattice model of bosons or qubits. Furthermore, we propose that Standard Models from the 15n-chiral fermion SU(5) Grand Unification can also be realized by a 3+1D local lattice model of fermions.