In  it was observed that asymptotic boundary conditions play an important role in the study of holographic entanglement beyond AdS/CFT. In particular, the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal must be modified for warped AdS 3 (WAdS 3) with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this paper, we consider AdS 3 and WAdS 3 with Dirichlet-Neumann bound-ary conditions. The conjectured holographic duals are warped conformal field theories (WCFTs), featuring a Virasoro-Kac-Moody algebra. We provide a holographic calculation of the entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy using AdS 3 /WCFT and WAdS 3 /WCFT du-alities. Our bulk results are consistent with the WCFT results derived by Castro-Hofman-Iqbal using the Rindler method. Comparing with , we explicitly show that the holographic entanglement entropy is indeed affected by boundary conditions. Both results differ from the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, indicating new relations between spacetime geometry and quantum entanglement for holographic dualities beyond AdS/CFT.
When enough matter is condensed in a small region, gravitational effects will be strong enough to cause collapse and a black hole will be formed. We formulate and prove here such a statement in the language of general relativity. (This is Theorem 2 of this paper.)
To understand the new physics and richness of quantum many-body system phenomena is one of the stimuli driving the condensed matter community forward. Importantly, the new insights and solutions for condensed matter theory sometimes come from the developed and developing knowledge of high energy theory, mathematical and particle physics, which is also true the other way around: Condensed matter physics has been providing crucial hints and playgrounds for the fundamental laws of high energy physics. In this thesis, we explore the aspects of symmetry, topology and anomalies in quantum matter with entanglement from both condensed matter and high energy theory viewpoints. The focus of our research is on the gapped many-body quantum systems including symmetry-protected topological states (SPTs) and topologically ordered states (TOs). We first explore the ground state structures of SPTs and TOs: the former can be symmetry twisted and the latter has robust degeneracy. The Berry phases generated by transporting and overlapping ground state sectors potentially provide universal topological invariants that fully characterize the SPTs and TOs. This framework provides us the aspects of symmetry and topology. We establish a field theory representation of SPT invariants in any dimension to uncover group cohomology classification and beyond — the former for SPTs with gapless boundary gauge anomalies, the latter for SPTs with mixed gauge-gravity anomalies. We study topological orders in 3+1 dimensions such as Dijkgraaf-Witten models, which support multi-string braiding statistics; the resulting patterns may be analyzed by the mathematical theory of knots and links. We explore the aspects of surface anomalies of bulk gapped states from the bulk-edge correspondence: The gauge anomalies of SPTs shed light on the construction of bosonic anomalies including Goldstone-Wilczek type, and also guide us to design a non-perturbative lattice model regularizing the low-energy chiral fermion/gauge theory towards the Standard Model while overcoming the Nielsen-Ninomiya fermion-doubling problem without relying on Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. We conclude by utilizing aspects of both quantum mechanical topology and spacetime topology to derive new formulas analogous to Verlinde’s via geometric-topology surgery. This provides new insights for higher dimensional topological states of matter.
We use modular invariance to derive constraints on the spectrum of warped conformal field theories (WCFTs) --- nonrelativistic quantum field theories described by a chiral Virasoro and U(1) Kac-Moody algebra. We focus on holographic WCFTs and interpret our results in the simplest holographic set up: three dimensional gravity with Compere-Song-Strominger boundary conditions. Holographic WCFTs feature a negative U(1) level that is responsible for negative norm descendant states. Despite the violation of unitarity we show that the modular bootstrap is still viable provided the (Virasoro-Kac-Moody) primaries carry positive norm. In particular, we show that holographic WCFTs must feature either primary states with negative norm or states with imaginary U(1) charge, the latter of which have a natural holographic interpretation. For large central charge and arbitrary level, we show that the first excited primary state in any WCFT satisfies the Hellerman bound. Moreover, when the level is positive we point out that known bounds for CFTs with internal U(1) symmetries readily apply to unitary WCFTs.