The classification work [5], [8] left unsettled only those anomalous isoparametric hypersurfaces with four principal curvatures
and multiplicity pair {4, 5}, {6, 9}, or {7, 8} in the sphere.
By systematically exploring the ideal theory in commutative algebra in conjunction with the geometry of isoparametric hypersurfaces,
we show that an isoparametric hypersurface with four principal curvatures and multiplicities {4, 5} in S19 is homogeneous, and, moreover, an isoparametric hypersurface with four principal curvatures and multiplicities {6, 9} in S31 is either the inhomogeneous
one constructed by Ferus, Karcher, and M¨unzner, or the one that is homogeneous.
This classification reveals the striking resemblance between these two rather different types of isoparametric hypersurfaces in the homogeneous category, even though the one with multiplicities {6, 9} is of the type constructed by Ferus, Karcher, and M¨unzner and
the one with multiplicities {4, 5} stands alone. The quaternion and the octonion algebras play a fundamental role in their geometric
structures.
A unifying theme in [5], [8], and the present sequel to them is Serre’s criterion of normal varieties. Its technical side pertinent
to our situation that we developed in [5], [8] and extend in this sequel is instrumental.
The classification leaves only the case of multiplicity pair {7, 8} open.