Guillaume BalDepartment of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York 10027Wenjia JingDépartement de Mathématiques et Applications, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 45 Rue d’Ulm, 75230 ParisCedex 05, France
Numerical Analysis and Scientific ComputingProbabilitymathscidoc:2206.25009
We analyze the random fluctuations of several multiscale algorithms, such as the multiscale finite element method (MsFEM) and the finite element heterogeneous multiscale method (HMM), that have been developed to solve partial differential equations with highly heterogeneous coefficients. Such multiscale algorithms are often shown to correctly capture the homogenization limit when the highly oscillatory random medium is stationary and ergodic. This paper is concerned with the random fluctuations of the solution about the deterministic homogenization limit. We consider the simplified setting of the one-dimensional elliptic equation, where the theory of random fluctuations is well understood. We develop a fluctuation theory for the multiscale algorithms in the presence of random environments with short-range and long-range correlations. For a given mesh size h, we show that the fluctuations converge in distribution in the space of continuous paths to Gaussian processes as the correlation length ε→0. We next derive the limit of such Gaussian processes as h→0 and compare this limit with the distribution of the random fluctuations of the continuous model. When such limits agree, we conclude that the multiscale algorithm captures the random fluctuations accurately and passes the corrector test. This property serves as an interesting benchmark to assess the behavior of the multiscale algorithm in practical situations where the assumptions necessary for the theory of homogenization are not met. What we find is that the computationally more expensive methods MsFEM, and HMM with a choice of parameter δ=h, correctly capture the random fluctuations both for short-range and long-range oscillations in the medium. The less expensive method HMM with δ<h correctly captures the fluctuations for long-range oscillations and strongly amplifies their size in media with short-range oscillations. We present a modified scheme with an intermediate computational cost that captures the random fluctuations in all cases.
We consider the problem of the random fluctuations in the solutions to elliptic PDEs with highly oscillatory random coefficients. In our setting, as the correlation length of the fluctuations tends to zero, the heterogeneous solution converges to a deterministic solution obtained by averaging. When the Green’s function to the unperturbed operator is sufficiently singular (i.e., not square integrable locally), the leading corrector to the averaged solution may be either deterministic or random, or both in a sense we shall explain.
Our main application is the solution of an elliptic problem with random Robin boundary condition that may be used to model diffusion of signaling molecules through a layer of cells into a bulk of extracellular medium. The problem is then described by an elliptic pseudo-differential operator (a Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator) on the boundary of the domain with random potential.
In the physical setting of a three dimensional extracellular medium on top of a two-dimensional surface of cells forming a layer of epithelium, we show that the approximate corrector to averaging consists of a deterministic correction plus a Gaussian field of amplitude proportional to the correlation length of the random medium. The result is obtained under some assumptions on the four-point correlation function in the medium. We provide examples of such random media based on Gaussian and Poisson statistics.
Guillaume BalDepartment of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York NY, 10027Wenjia JingDepartment of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, United States
Analysis of PDEsProbabilitymathscidoc:2206.03001
Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems, 28, (4), 1311-1343, 2010.12
We consider the theory of correctors to homogenization in stationary transport equations with rapidly oscillating, random coefficients. Let ε << 1 be the ratio of the correlation length in the random medium to the overall distance of propagation. As ε↓0, we show that the heterogeneous transport solution is well-approximated by a homogeneous transport solution. We then show that the rescaled corrector converges in (probability) distribution and weakly in the space and velocity variables, to a Gaussian process as an application of a central limit result. The latter result requires strong assumptions on the statistical structure of randomness and is proved for random processes constructed by means of a Poisson point process.