Consider a perturbed KdV equation:
ut +uxxx −6uux = εf(u(·)), x ∈ T = R/Z,
where the nonlinear perturbation defines analytic operators u(·) → f(u(·)) in sufficiently smooth Sobolev spaces. Assume that the equation has an ε-quasi- invariant measure μ and satisfies some additional mild assumptions. Let uε(t) be a solution. Then on time intervals of order ε−1, as ε → 0, its actions I(uε(t,·)) can be approximated by solutions of a certain well-posed averaged equation, provided that the initial datum is μ-typical.
In this paper we discuss properties of the KdV equation under periodic boundary conditions, especially those which are important to study perturbations of the equation. Next we review what is known now about long-time behaviour of solutions for perturbed KdV equations.
We examine the convergence in the Krylov–Bogolyubov averaging for nonlinear stochastic perturbations of linear PDEs with pure imaginary spectrum and show that if the involved effective equation is mixing, then the convergence is uniform in time.